Techniques to Enhance the Lifetime of MANET

Techniques to Enhance the Lifetime of MANET

Suchismita Rout (Silicon Institute of Technology, India), Ashok Kumar Turuk (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India) and Bibhudatta Sahoo (National Institute of Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0486-3.ch011
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Now-a-days more and more devices are getting portable. This has encouraged the development of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). In addition to device portability, MANET does not require a pre-established network infrastructure. As a result they can be easily deployed in situations like emergency rescue and disaster management. However, there are certain issues that are inherent to MANET such as hidden and exposed terminal problem, limited bandwidth, limited processing and battery power. These issues need to be addressed for successful deployment of MANET. Nodes in MANET are run by battery power. Sometimes, it is difficult to replace and/or re-charge the battery. Therefore, to increase the longevity of the network, the available battery power must be judiciously used. In this chapter we focus on different techniques proposed by various researchers to enhance the lifetime of MANET. Along with the same we also give our own contributions as to maximize network lifetime with the effect use of battery source.
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1. Introduction To Manet

Communication between various devices has lots of impact on human life. The use of information networks and information technology in day to day life is more than in any other networks (Sarkar et al., 2007). The information networks can be wired and wireless. The popularity of wireless networks has been appreciated in the last few years due to its wide range of applicability. Compared to wired networks, the advantage of the wireless networks includes reduction in infrastructure requirements and mobile communication (Misra et al., 2009). Encouraged by the success of cellular communication the goal is to achieve a communication that does not rely on fixed infrastructure and give a solution to instant networking. The result is Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETS) (Singh et al., 1998). The interest in ad hoc networks stem from its ability to provide fast networking in the area where the cellular technology is either very expensive or infeasible to deploy (Ilyas et al., 2004). The nodes are deployed in a region to establish the network dynamically. MANET gives the zero infrastructure networking. It is so enticing that both the industry and academia have focused many researches in this area.

The major challenges in MANET is to give information using unreliable physical channel within highly dynamic set of mobile, limited-range, limited-energy, half-duplex radios without any fixed infrastructure (Harold et al., 2012). An efficient network protocol should optimize the throughput, delay and energy dissipation of the network with a consideration of fairness, robustness and Quality of Service (QoS) (Jones et al., 2001). In this section, we give focus on most of the issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Network.

1.1. Application

  • Military Tactical Operations: The military equipments in present day’s scenarios are quite sophisticated as it contains many automated parts and computers. MANET can be used for setting up the battle field equipment deployed in a frontline of battle field. It helps in autonomous networking and computing in the battle field. This helps in to set up an information network among soldiers, vehicles, and military information headquarters. For example, ad hoc network is set up with the equipment and hand held devices and give information to the military personnel.

  • Search and Rescue Missions: MANETs do not require any pre-existing infrastructure. These networks can be deployed easily with no time to gather information in emergency situations such as search and rescue operation after a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood and fire fighting for communication in areas with little or no wireless infrastructure support. In disaster recovery situations the entire communication infrastructure is destroyed and to recover it instantly is very crucial. Using MANET the communication infrastructure is set up instantly. For example, in earthquake affected area the communication infrastructure is destroyed and it would not be possible to establish the communication using traditional infrastructure-based telephone line, mobile phones, internet etc. In such conditions ad hoc network is set up to provide network connectivity to make rescue operation trouble-free.

  • Law Enforcement: For secure and fast communication during law enforcement operations.

  • Commercial Use: MANET can be used in non-critical and collaborative applications. For example, in lecture room when no infrastructure is present, using MANET instantly the network is set up instantly for the audience to exchange notes and also surf the web with the help of one hand held device.

  • Environmental Monitoring: MANET can be deployed in a region to collect various types of data about the environment. These data are collected from a remote region and helps in several applications such as environmental management, security monitoring, road traffic monitoring and management.

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