Technological and Gamified Solutions for Pollution Control in Cognitive Cities

Technological and Gamified Solutions for Pollution Control in Cognitive Cities

Pavneet Bhatia (Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, India) and Parulpreet Singh (Lovely Professional University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8085-0.ch010

Abstract

This chapter presents an idea in the contribution to the concept of smart cities is to build a place which provides clean air to breathe. Advancements in the technology is acting as a bane to environmental balance leading to global warming, irregular rain cycles, increasing pollution, disturbed rainfalls. The need of the hour is to find a solution to the issue of increasing pollution that may lead to disastrous consequences. This chapter builds a framework of a cognitive city with attention to the impact and burden over environmental resources. This chapter is a perfect integration of traditional approaches, technological methods, and gamified solution as a remedy to growing pollution that can be and should be deployed in the project of smart city.
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Challenges In Cities

Increasing Pollutants in the air are significantly contributing to the growing cases of ill health in India. According to Greenpeace India’s report, 1.2 million deaths take place every year due to air pollution in India (Pti, 2017). The reports also claimed that none of 168 cities across the country where air quality test was performed, could live up to the standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Rural and urban India are both affected by poor air quality. Rapid urbanization and industrial development have adversely affected quality of air in urban areas (WHO, 2016). Industrial and vehicular emissions have made the case worse, however, the deterioration in air quality at rural places occurred due to use of cow dung, biomass fuels or coal as major energy sources for cooking and heating (Gargava et al, 2016; Dey et al, 2012). A study published by the World Bank in 2016 revealed that air pollution cost India approximately 8% of its GDP or $560 billion in 2013, as a result of lost productivity due to premature mortality and morbidity (“World Bank”, 2016). Under National Air Monitoring Program (NAMP), PM10 (Particulate Matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm), Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are considered as criteria pollutants to measure air quality. Figure 1 depicts the PM10 levels in top 10 polluted cities.

Figure 1.

RSPM/PM10 in top 10 polluted cities in 2013

Raipur emerged as the most polluted city with RSPM (Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter) levels of 305 µg/m3 in 2013 followed by Allahabad, Gwalior, Agra and Delhi. In a WHO report published in 2016, it was reported that India’s towns and cities were grappling with toxic air, due to increasing vehicular and industrial emissions as well as limited government interventions in solving and reducing the issue (Shukla, n.d.).

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