Technological Developments in the Determination of Emerging Contaminants in Water

Technological Developments in the Determination of Emerging Contaminants in Water

Magali Kemmerich (Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1871-7.ch006

Abstract

Emerging contaminants (ECs), which constitute a group of chemicals, such as personal care products, food additives, and endocrine disruptors, are not commonly monitored and have the potential to cause adverse effects on the environment and humans. In water, even at low concentrations, they pose risks to environmental health. Several technologies have been developed to determine these compounds; the most common ones are liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with analysis by gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). This chapter analyzes these methodologies and highlights their possibilities and limitations and compiles the most recent advances in this field.
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Emerging Contaminants In Water Samples

A wide range of synthetic organic compounds has been used by society for different purposes, such as food production and preservation, industrial manufacturing processes and human and animal healthcare. Many chemicals, such as organic and inorganic compounds, pathogens and nanoparticles (NPs), have been identified as contaminants in water sources. ECs can be found in different groups of chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Recent research has revealed the occurrence of ECs in sewage effluents, surface and ground waters, precipitation and drinking waters at trace levels. Direct analysis of ECs in water is difficult because, in some samples, they are found at low concentrations and are associated with the components of the matrix, i. e., organic matter. Therefore, sample preparation has currently moved towards environmental friendliness, low cost, miniaturization, automation and simplicity. The following section discusses the application of different sample preparation techniques and analytical method analysis of ECs.

Key Terms in this Chapter

LC-MS: Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is an analytical method used to identify and quantify different substances in a sample.

LLE: Liquid-liquid extraction is a sample preparation technique based on the separation of a specific component from a heterogeneous mixture of liquids with different solubilities into two different immiscible liquids.

GC-MS: Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is an analytical method used to identify and quantify different substances in a sample.

SPME: Solid-phase microextraction is a sample preparation technique based on the equilibrium of analytes between the sample matrix and the extraction phase.

DLLME: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction is a sample preparation technique based on the injection of extraction solvent (immiscible in water), which is assisted by a dispersive solvent (miscible in both water and extraction solvents) within an aqueous solution.

SBSE: Stir-bar sorptive extraction is a sample preparation technique based on the partioning between a PDMS phase of the stir-bar and the water sample.

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