Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): Research Agenda

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): Research Agenda

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6267-2.ch005

Abstract

This chapter gives a brief review of literature of TPACK and the variables researchers have focused on during the past decade. The review of literature is divided into four parts: the research done on the emergence of the model and the educationists' works on the theoretical aspects of TPACK; how certain researchers have tried to validate the TPACK model and the contradictions they revealed in the process; the assessment of the model in the context of teaching and the way TPACK can be related to other attributes of teachers and their context of teaching; and finally the measures of TPACK including both subjective and performance measures.
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Background

Since the advent of the conceptual model of TPACK several studies have been done to scrutinize the validity of the model, discovering teachers’ perceptions of the model, assessing the construct, and probing into possible ways to integrate the model into teacher education programs to empower teachers accordingly. In this chapter, a quick review of the studies done with respect to the above mentioned aspects would be done and their findings would be discussed briefly.

The Emergence of the Model

One of the early models of TPACK was proposed by Pierson (2001) who based on a survey discussed the integration of technology into pedagogical expertise. She investigated how teachers at various levels of technology use and teaching ability used technology in instruction; and how technology use was related to general teaching practice. Based on the empirical data and the literature available at the time, she suggested that another component, technological knowledge, should be added to the knowledge base of teachers. According to her findings,

this knowledge would include not only basic technology competency but also an understanding of the unique characteristics of particular types of technologies that would lead themselves to particular aspects of the teaching and learning process. (p. 427)

In another study, Angeli and Valanides (2005) discussed the evolution of an instructional systems design (ISD) model based on an expanded view of Shulman’s concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The proposed ISD model was suggested to be useful in educational technology courses, elementary teacher education method courses, and teacher professional development courses to develop information and communication technology (ICT)-related PCK. The findings of the study revealed that the evolved model was effective in developing some aspects of ICT-related PCK.

In a series of studies, Kohler and associates (Kohler & Mishra, 2005) presented Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) as a framework for the integration of technology within teaching. In this model, that is the most frequently referred to in the recent literature on TPACK (See Chapter 4), three main bodies of knowledge – technological knowledge, content knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge – shape the design of the theoretical framework. The characteristics of these three bodies of knowledge, along with the bodies of knowledge that emerge from the interactions between and among them (7 types of competencies) are discussed in the published works. They argue that knowing how to integrate technology emerges from an understanding both of the three main bodies of knowledge and their interactions. TPACK framework is argued to have significant implications for teachers and teacher educators. Therefore, TPACK is a conceptualization of the knowledge base teachers need to effectively teach with technology (Voogt, Fisser, ParejaRoblin, Tondeur, & van Braak, 2012).

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