The Changing Nature of Psychological Contract in the Tourism Industry: Importance of Employability

The Changing Nature of Psychological Contract in the Tourism Industry: Importance of Employability

Aziz Gokhan Ozkoc (Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University, Turkey) and Nurgul Caliskan (Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1474-0.ch010

Abstract

The fact that new employment relations, which emerge as a result of changing market conditions, have a much higher level of instability, uncertainty, and variability than the traditional employment necessitated the reshaping of the content of the psychological contract according to the needs of the modern world. The concept of employability that emerges in this direction is of importance both in meeting the flexibility required by the industry and in increasing the professional commitment of employees and reducing the perception of job insecurity, especially in the tourism industry which has a fragile and sensitive structure. In this context, the chapter focuses on the theoretical content and necessity of the orientation from the “old psychological contract” to the “employability” paradigm. The information gathered in this context constitutes a source for emphasizing the importance of employability in the development of professional competence and professional commitment in the tourism industry.
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The Psychological Contract Concept And Its Properties

The concept of psychological contract, which deals with the invisible dimensions of the employment relationship, was discussed in terms of organizational behavior, in the 1960s when employer and employee relationship began to gain importance. (Schein, 1965; Stredwick, 2013). Argyris (1960), who used the concept for the first time in this period, defined the psychological contract as ‘an implicit and unwritten agreement between the two sides to respect each other's norms’, emphasizing that the organizations and employees interact with each other and linked the effectiveness of the organizations to the contents of the psychological contract in the organizational environment. Levinson (1962), who contributed significantly to the development of the concept in the early years, defined the psychological contract as ‘the sum of the mutual expectations between the organization and its employees’ and in this sense defined their commitment to the non-verbal acceptance of the parties as unwritten contracts.

Key Terms in this Chapter

New Psychological Contract: The type of contract in which employees assume their own career responsibilities and emphasize employment security rather than job security in the employment relationship.

Employment Security: It emphasizes the sustainability of the job in different roles or organizations.

Exchange Relationship: A situation where employees expect various rewards and opportunities from employers in return for privileges such as labor, talent and time they give their organizations.

Job Security: In short, job security means the protection of the right to work and that employees feel confident that they will be employed in the workplace for a long time regardless of economic and organizational conditions.

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