The Detection of Tuberculosis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Combined with a Lateral Flow Dipstick

The Detection of Tuberculosis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Combined with a Lateral Flow Dipstick

Thongchai Kaewphinit (Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand), Somchai Santiwatanakul (Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand) and Kosum Chansiri (Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6363-3.ch013
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Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) and is a persistent problem in developing countries. Present methods for its detection include normal or nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by electrophoresis, real-time PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and culture assay. These techniques entail various disadvantages such as high cost, long assay time and use of toxic substances. Novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) permits DNA to be amplified rapidly under constant temperature. The combination of LAMP and chromatographic Lateral Flow Dipstick (LAMP-LFD) by using biotinylated LAMP amplicon hybridized with Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled probes are allowed to detect MTB without electrophoresis and interpreted within 3-5 min. LAMP-LFD is as highly sensitive as PCR-electrophoresis method. Based on its sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, cost effectiveness, ease of use, and convenience, LAMP-LFD could be suitable for use in early MTB detection.
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Background

The name TB was probably first used by Shonlein in 1939. Its name is an older epithets including phthisis and consumption of which allude the marked wasting characteristic of advanced disease. Non-pulmonary manifestations particularly cervical lymphadenitis was known as scrofula (Grange, 1998).

TB is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis whose principal reservoir is human, and also other mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex such as M. bovis (MBV) or M. africaum (MAC). It is the most frequently affected to the lung but the disease has been termed as Morbud percorpus stressing that it may involve virtually any organ or system of the body. TB may, therefore, mimic many other diseases and often present a serious diagnostic challenge, especially in countries where the disease is now rare and often overlooked.

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