The Determinant of the Employment-Social Protection Relation in Turkey

The Determinant of the Employment-Social Protection Relation in Turkey

Davuthan Günaydın (Namik Kemal University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2668-1.ch001
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Social protection can be recognized as one of the most significant social achievements of the last century. In this study one of the most important issues of labour market in Turkey - employment-social protection relationship - will be evaluated. It can hardly be argued that Turkey has a comprehensive social protection system. An important part of people who are at the age of working are not covered by the social security system with reasons such as: low labour force participation rate, prevalence of informal employment, child labour, high share of employment in the agricultural sector, the weakness of the social security system and problems of labour market regulation. This situation increases the need of social protection systems. On the other hand, weakness in coordination between the institutions those operate in the field of social assistance and lack of appropriate criteria in determining the real people in need cause inefficient and inadequate supplying of services and inefficiency in using sources.
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Social Protection Concept

Social protection is considered to be one of the most significant social achievements of 21st century. Social protection systems have enabled citizens to build civilized healthy and prosperous societies by protecting the individuals from the security vulnerability and deprivation to help them lead their lives humanely. Moreover, social protection has been able to ensure basic social and financial security so that everyone, both men and women, can survive indiscriminately. At the same time, it plays a significant role in enhancing the quality of life of the society and the individuals by improving human potential, facilitating structural change, increasing stability, fostering economic dynamism and ensuring social justice and harmony (García & Gruat, 2003, p. 1).

According to ILO, social protection is a combination of programs, standards and public regulations aiming at protecting the workers and their families from the unpredictable social and financial threat. It can be classified within three groups, which are social security, social aid and labor market regulation. Social security consists of the programs offering protection against situations arising out of unemployment, disease, employment problems or life cycles such as elderliness or pregnancy. Social aid programs provide help to the poor and disadvantaged group. While the employees and their employers finance social security, social aid is financed by the taxes (Barrientos, 2010, p. 2).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Minimum Wage: The minimum pay per hour almost all workers are entitled to by law.

Unemployment Insurance: A source of income for workers who have lost their jobs through no fault of their own.

Basic Income Guarantee: The Basic Income Guarantee is a government ensured guarantee that no one's income will fall below the level necessary to meet their most basic needs for any reason.

Long-Term Unemployment: Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer.

Decent Work: Decent work sums up the aspirations of people in their working lives. It involves opportunities for work that is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organize and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men.

Welfare State: A system in which the government undertakes the responsibility for providing for the social and economic security of its population, usually through unemployment insurance, old age pension and other social security measures.

Micro Finance Support: Micro finance is the provision of financial services to low-income people in developing countries. An inclusive financial sector, where the majority of people have access to financial services, provides a sustainable basis for balanced socio-economic development.

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