The Effect of the Festivals on the Development of Tourism With the Support of Residents: The Case Study of Zeytinli Rockfest in Edremit

The Effect of the Festivals on the Development of Tourism With the Support of Residents: The Case Study of Zeytinli Rockfest in Edremit

Muammer Bezirgan (Balikesir University, Balıkesir, Turkey) and Sevim Yetginer (Balikesir University, Balıkesir, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9936-4.ch006

Abstract

The positive effects of the festivals are composed of five factors: social image and entertainment opportunities, infrastructure and urban development, local promotion, economic development, and socio-cultural changes. The negative effects of the festival consisted of four factors: traffic problems, environmental risks and social conflict, security risks, and economic costs. As a result of the testing of research hypotheses, it has been determined that two factors (social image and entertainment opportunity, economic development) which are among the positive effects of the festival have a positive effect on the support of the local people to the development of tourism. Among the negative effects of the festival, environmental risk and social conflicts and traffic problems factors have been found to have a negative effect on the support of the local people to the development of tourism.
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Introduction

Festivals, which are an important factor in the diversification of the tourism product, are the events that are held to celebrate, commemorate, or share the unique values ​​of the society at specific time intervals (Giritlioğlu et al., 2015: 308). Although the goals of festivals differ, festivals generally provide participants with a unique, authentic, threshold experience and can attract tourists to the place where they are realized (Derrett, 2009: 108; Gelder and Robinson, 2011: 135). The importance of the concept of festival has revealed a tourism type called ‘Festival Tourism’ Festival (Quinn, 2006: 288).

In festivals, destinations, creating out-of-season demand and revitalizing the destination, ensuring the branding of the destination is preferred and made to give a positive image and identity to the local people and to increase the tourism revenues of the destination (Getz, 2007: 21; Goldblatt, 2011: 13; Ekman, According to Dwyer, Mellor, Mistilis, and Mules (2000), it is not enough to evaluate the festivals with only their economic contributions. Evaluating the positive and negative effects of festivals to destinations in general is very important for the success of festivals. In terms of sustainability and efficiency management, it is important to know how the social-cultural and environmental impacts are perceived by the local community as well as the economic contributions it provides to maximize the benefits of the festivals and to minimize the unwanted negative aspects (Small et al., 5 2005).

Hosting a festival creates the potential for realization of many social influences in society. Social impacts on the host society affect the usual quality of life and change the way of life, values, social interactions and identity (Hall, 2003, p.38). The opportunities of interaction with other members of the society, entertainment and leisure activities, and increased sense of identity and pride are the possible festival results that can be perceived positively by the local people. However, festivals also create the potential for many negative effects. Traffic congestion, overcrowding, road closures, vandalism and rude behaviours represent negative social impacts that have led to frustration in the lives of local people during the festival (Delamere et al., 2001, p.13).

It has been involved in a number of studies in the development of tourism in a region and, in particular, the local people have a very important role in the acceptance or rejection of an activity based on perception and attitude (Delamere, 1999; Small: 2007). Many authors have conducted studies to measure the impacts of the information that will be obtained in relation to providing and maintaining community support for the event, as it will contribute to the better planning and management of future festivals (Schlenker and Edwards, 2003, p.585; Allen et al., 2005, p.29). ; Bowdin et al., 2006, p.71). It is observed that there is a linear relationship between the success and sustainability of local festivals and the level of support of the local people to these festivals. As Delamere (2001) points out, it is useful to take into account the attitudes of festivals and the host people to these festivals. Thus, the negativity of festivals in the life of the local people can be reduced, and a balance between social and economic development can be achieved. At the same time, it is important for both individual and social aspects to propose solutions to their negative effects.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Festival Impacts: The effects of the festival on local residents are divided into two as positive and negative effects. The festivals have positive effects such as promoting the cultural heritage of the local people, promoting the city, increasing the number of tourists, creating additional cultural entertainment opportunities for the local people and increasing the quality of life of the local people. Negative impacts include traffic congestion, parking problem, noise pollution and garbage dumps, as well as overcrowding in local businesses and facilities.

Structural Equation Modeling: Structural equation modeling is a multivariate statistical analysis technique that is used to analyze structural relationships. This technique is the combination of factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, and it is used to analyze the structural relationship between measured variables and latent constructs.

Factor Analysis: Factor analysis is a technique that is used to reduce a large number of variables into fewer numbers of factors.

Festivals: Festivals are rituals that have been bringing people together since ancient times under the influence of various social, cultural, religious and economic motivations.

Edremit: Edremit is a district in Balikesir Province, Turkey, as well as the central city of that district, on the west coast of Turkey, not far from the Greek island of Lesbos. The modern city of Edremit is named after the ancient city of Adramyttion or Adramytteion, a city of Asia Minor on the coast of Aeolis. Zeytinli Rock Festival is held in Edremit district.

Zeytinli Rock Festival: Zeytinli Rock Festival is one of the most well-attended music festivals held in Turkey. The festival has a festive festival culture. The Zeytinli Rock Festival is held every year by the end of August. More than 200 thousand domestic and foreign participants participate in the festival. The duration of the festival is 5 days.

Festival Tourism: Tourist traffic, in which the motivation to travel is the willingness to attend festivals is referred to as festival tourism. Major one-time or recurring events of limited duration, developed primarily to enhance the awareness, appeal and profitability of a tourism destination in the short and/or long term.

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