The Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Future of Aviation

The Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Future of Aviation

Salim Kurnaz (Süleyman Demirel University, Turkey) and Deimantė Žilinskienė (Kazimieras Simonavičius University, Lithuania)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-2319-6.ch004
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Abstract

The aviation industry, which gained momentum in the 20th century, has become one of the pioneers of the transportation industry in the 21st century. Thanks to the speed of technological developments, this great and rapid development increases the importance of the sector day by day. This rapid growth in the aviation sector has been interrupted from time to time due to world wars, economic, or social crisis. Lessons learned from the crises are important factors that enable one to be prepared for future crises. For this reason, it is considered that it will be useful to examine the damage caused by the COVID-19 pandemic to the aviation sector and to reveal the right and wrong practices made during the emergence of the pandemic.
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Background

The development of aviation industry was interrupted by Covid-19 pandemic, which started in the Wuhan province of China and affected the whole world. It was declared as a public health emergency on 30 January 2020 and as a pandemic (universal epidemic disease) on 11 March 2020 by World Health Organization (Zhuang vd., 2020; Zhang vd., 2020). After the declaration of Covid-19 as a pandemic, mobility of both human and freight was stopped to lower the spread of the disease. Air transport and operations which plays an important role in human mobility, are also stopped due to covid-19. For this reason, the aviation industry; has always been at the forefront both in the spread of the epidemic and in prevention efforts. In the last 50 years, during which the aviation industry has developed rapidly, there have been periods of contraction and stagnation due to various factors on sectoral growth such as Gulf Wars, 2008 Global Crisis, SARS, Twin Towers Attack in 2001. However, in none of these crises, the aviation industry hasn’t almost come to a standstill, as in the case of COVID-19 pandemic.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Eurocontrol: The aim of organization is to develop a pan-European air traffic management (ATM) system by coordinating the work of all aviation participants in Europe.

Full-Service Network Carriers: In this transportation model, companies use hub and spoke transportation model and serve to many classes. They also offer in-flight comfort, connecting baggage services, additional services to passengers. These carriers are also known as flag carriers, and most are government-owned entities in some part of their history.

IATA: IATA strives to ensure that people, freight and mail move around the global airline network as easily as if they were on a single country, and that member’s aircraft operate safely, securely, efficiently and economically under clearly defined and understood rules.

Low-Cost Carriers: In this transportation model, aviation businesses have abandoned cost-increasing additional services and focused on providing lower prices and lean service. In order to reduce costs, they use aircraft more effectively, operate at secondary airports, eliminate free in-flight catering and services, and attach importance to the use of technology.

JAA: JAA, which was established to standardize and coordinate regional aviation rules for member countries; it has collected its rules and practices consisting of issues such as flight safety, flight activity, personnel licences, airworthiness, and maintenance in documents called joint aviation requirements (JAR). Joint Aviation Authorities.

Regional Airlines: They are aviation companies that aim to collect passengers to the main assembly centers with mostly small planes. They are organizations that connect people living in small and isolated areas with big cities.

EASA: EASA is founded on 15 July 2002 and its headquarter is in Cologne, Germany. The aim of agency is to promote and achieve the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation.

Aviation Business Models: Airline companies are organizations that use aircraft for passenger and freight transportation and provide services between airports. They can make this service provision alone or establish partnerships or alliances with other aviation companies. They provide this service with the business certificates or licenses they receive from the aviation authorities of the states. The business models they follow during this service delivery are called airline business models. The most used airline business models can be counted as full-service network carriers, low-cost carries, charter airlines, regional airlines, and Cargo airlines.

Cargo Airlines: These are aviation enterprises whose main purpose is freight transportation. They mostly use older model airplanes and operate during low flight hours to reduce their costs.

ECAC: ECAC is established in 1955 to provide technical and commercial cooperation between European countries to harmonize civil aviation policies and practices among members and to advance reconciliation between European countries and third countries and consists of 42 member countries.

Charter Airlines: These are aviation enterprises that provide services without being bound by a certain schedule. Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft as opposed to individual aircraft seats. They usually sell their passenger capacity to holiday agencies. They are also called air taxi.

ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization is established in 1947 under the United Nations. The aims of ICAO are: To ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation; To promote the design and operation of aircraft for peaceful purposes; Support the development of airlines, airports and air navigation facilities for civil aviation; To meet the needs of the international community for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transportation.

Pandemic: A Pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease or virus. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for declaring when a global influenza is occurring.

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