The Entrepreneurial Intention in University Level Students: The Case of Mexico

The Entrepreneurial Intention in University Level Students: The Case of Mexico

Rocío González Martínez (Universidad Politécnica de Guanajuato, Mexico), Martha Ríos-Manríquez (Universidad de Guanajuato, Mexico) and Ana Laura Arteaga Cervantes (Universidad Politécnica de Guanajuato, Mexico)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7675-4.ch008

Abstract

Universities impact in the entrepreneurship ecosystem, they emanate a large number of talents, using their resources to support entrepreneurship. From this situation, arrives the importance of generating and validating measurement instruments to contribute to the identification of level of entrepreneurial intention with which students, of higher education level, have. The Exploratory Factor Analysis technique, uses the Varimax Orthogonal Rotation method, with principal component extraction factors, with a sample of 235 students in public universities of the state of Guanajuato in Mexico, considering 6 dimensions as variables. The results of this research consider as relevant only 3 dimensions from the 6 studied, considering that the entrepreneurial intention in the higher education student is a product of creativity, innovation and need for achievement. While the three dimensions: self-esteem, assumption of risk and problem solving, does not reach a relevant importance; showing a robust instrument for the Mexican context.
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Background

Entrepreneurship

The term “entrepreneurship” represents a series of conceptualizations from its origins. It has been considered as a word of French origin, in which it is thought that the entrepreneur is the person who runs his company, owning his capital and characters who live in uncertainty (Cantillon, 1931). Hence, the study of the role of entrepreneurship is fundamental in economic and social development (Marulanda, Montoya and Velez, 2014). For Formeichella (2014), the entrepreneur is the person capable of creating something new or different, which can have an impact both for him and his community. In this way, entrepreneurs must be identified as generators of ideas, with the ability to develop skills that allow them to improve social conditions (Jaramillo, 2008).

Youth entrepreneurship is an opportunity to counteract the bad condition that prevails in terms of unemployment and thus strengthen the productive system of a country (Durán, 2016). Encouraging the entrepreneurial attitude in the young population, has attracted attention in terms of public policies and society in general. Due to the consideration of qualities inherent to the youthful population of the country, it is the attributes for undertaking entrepreneurial action that are considered as is creativity, not being afraid of risk, together with the fact that they are physical acts to increase productivity, so that there can be a better relationship between young people and economic growth (Canales, Román and Ovando, 2017).

For the entrepreneur, a determining factor is education, but at the same time, it is limiting because the educational system only focuses on the development of a chair that fosters entrepreneurship, generating in the students a culture and entrepreneurial spirit (Orozco and Chavero, 2008). Therefore universities, with institutions, support and encourage entrepreneurship, through the generation of programs and spaces that allow the student to prepare business plans that are aimed at the creation of companies (Ruíz, Cabeza and Briano, 2012).

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