The Environmental Impact of 5G Technology on Humans and Animals

The Environmental Impact of 5G Technology on Humans and Animals

Rakesh Kumar Chandan (Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, India), Prem Nath Suman (Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, India) and Keshav Sinha (Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7258-0.ch003
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Abstract

5G has the potential to become the future communication technology as it has the capability to provide faster download speeds, extremely low latency, and higher capacity. The deployment of 5G will be as a wi-fi that will cover the entire globe. It will serve an elevated number of devices than the previous technology; therefore, the distribution of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) will grow rapidly. Although no direct adverse effect has been reported by the service providers, the real health impact of this advanced technology is still under investigation. It is expected that the mm-wave frequency range (30-300 GHz) is ideal for 5G technology, and the devices, in this operating range, will work at very low power due to which small penetration is supposed to occur, but it will require a high density of small cells. It will increase the chances of human exposure to RF-EMF. In this chapter, a theoretical framework is used to describe the effect of 5G technology on humans and animals and also the rumors related to the adaptation of 5G technology.
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Introduction

International Telecom Union (ITU) is an UN-based agency whose responsibility is to define the generation of wireless networks and allocation of spectrum to all other nations. Before defining the wireless generation, its expert member examines the requirement which mainly emphasizes three matrices (i) Spectral Efficiency Peak, (ii) User’s Experience and Data Rate, and (iii) Spectrum Efficiency Average. The generation of wireless communication has some fixed set of metrics values which is given by the ITU (Chauhan et al., 2016). The requirement of ITU is satisfied by different companies like 3GPP, once the requirement is fulfilled the expert and the independent team of ITU have considered it very harshly for future implementations. If any of the technologies has satisfied the matrix value that technology came under the umbrella of that particular generation of communication. The ITU defines the generation of wireless technology into five different parts which are discussed below:

Key Terms in this Chapter

Non-Communicable Disease: It is a noninfectious illness that cannot be transmitted from one person to another. This is sometimes referred to as a chronic illness.

Cancer: It is a disease that involves abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Electrical Burn: It occurs when electricity passes through the body and causes rapid harm.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU): It is used by United Nations specialized organizations in charge of all information and communication issues.

Brain Tumor: A brain tumor is a collection of abnormal cells in the brain that forms a mass.

RF-EMW: The RF component of the electromagnetic spectrum is defined as the portion of the spectrum where electromagnetic waves have frequencies ranging from 3 kHz to 300 GHz.

Metabolism: It is a term that is used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism.

Non-Ionizing Radiation: Any sort of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules is called non-ionizing.

Peak Power: It is also known as peak surge power and if the power is greater than it can sustain for a longer period.

Ionizing Radiation: It is a type of energy that has been released by the atoms in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles.

Microwave (MW): The frequency of MW is ranging from 1GHz to 100GHz.

Neuroma: It is a painful condition referred to as a pinched nerve or nerve tumor.

Electromagnetic Field: It is also known for the EM field which is a non-quantum field created by accelerating electric charges.

Gliomas: It is a form of tumor that starts in the brain or spine's glial cells.

Tissue: It is the collection of cells with a similar structure that works together to fulfill a certain task.

Millimeter (mm) Wave: It is a spectrum that has a bandwidth in-between 30 GHz and 300 GHz.

Visible Light: Visible light is defined as the wavelengths that are visible to most human eyes.

Far-Field: The shape of the antenna pattern in the far-field is unaffected by distance from the source.

Human Carcinogen: A carcinogen is an agent that has the potential to cause cancer in people.

WHO: It is the United Nations specialized organization that is the charge of international public health.

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF): It is the ITU term for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies ranging from 3Hz to 30Hz and wavelengths ranging from 100,000km to 10,000km.

Wi-Fi: It is the wireless networking technology that allows devices such as computers, mobile devices, and other equipment to interface with the internet.

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR): It is the rate of RF (radiofrequency) energy that is absorbed by the body and it is measured in SAR.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA): It is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.

Ultraviolet (UV): The UV rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from 10 nm (with a frequency of roughly 30 PHz) to 400 nm (750 THz), which is shorter than visible light but longer than X-rays.

IARC: It is the international agency for cancer research, and it is dedicated by the world health organization.

Photochemical Effect: A chemical reaction triggered by the absorption of energy in the form of light.

5G: The fifth-generation mobile network after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks and it is also a new global wireless standard.

Thyroid: It is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits low on the front of the neck.

Antenna: It is often called aerial or transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic signals.

Radiation: It is the kind of energy that comes from a source and travels through spaces and may be able to penetrate various materials.

COVID-19: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

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