The Essence of Cyber Security: The Main Historical Stages of the Development of Cyber Threats

The Essence of Cyber Security: The Main Historical Stages of the Development of Cyber Threats

Nika Chitadze
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-5760-3.ch001
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The speed of technology development has completely changed the international security landscape. The world is faced with massive cyber challenges. Cyber security is a global challenge that transcends state borders and requires collective international cooperation. Even though the world's leading countries, members of the European Union, and the alliance are trying to deal with cyber threats independently, none of the states has been able to effectively fight against cyber challenges. The fight against cybercrime at the international level is possible only with the collaboration of countries, with a collective approach.
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Introduction: Cyberspace – The 5Th Dimension: The New International Battlefield

Along with the development of digital technologies, global security architecture is changing dramatically. As technology advances, so do cyber challenges and cyber risks, making the future increasingly unpredictable. Today, cyberspace is the 5th dimension of warfare, along with land, sea, air, and space. This is an area where normal laws and regulations do not apply. Therefore, due to its unpredictable nature, it represents the greatest threat to humanity (Cederberg, 2018).

There are several variants of the definition of the term “cyberspace”. All definitions define “cyberspace” as a technological and informational complex that includes the global network of Internet and telecommunications, as well as processors. Cyberspace contains both physical and virtual elements. Often the terms “cyberspace” and “Internet” are used interchangeably, however, it should be noted that cyberspace encompasses much more than the Internet (Cavelty, 2022).

Cyber power is a game changer in the political game and introduces a new asymmetry in political power. As studies show, the continuous, rapid development of digital technologies will lead to the transformation of all areas of society in the future, which will completely change the politics of warfare, as opposed to traditional warfare.

One of the main characteristics of cyberspace is hybrid warfare, which is a modern form of warfare and is used by countries to achieve political goals. As the famous 19th-century Prussian military theorist Carl Clausewitz believed, war is the continuation of politics by military means, or simply the expression of politics in other ways. Based on these theories, it can be said that hybrid warfare today is a continuation of politics using hybrid capabilities (Cavelty, 2022). A fundamental question is asked: what is hybrid warfare or hybrid operations? There is no internationally accepted definition of hybrid warfare. Because the conduct of war includes many aspects, hybrid warfare can be considered as conducting combat operations in all possible domains using all possible means.

If we look at the history of warfare, hostilities are described in different terms. For example, non-linear operations, low-intensity conflict, large-scale conflict, political warfare, unconventional warfare, irregular warfare, asymmetric warfare, and cross-border warfare. Along with the development of technology, the art of warfare is constantly improving and developing. According to scientists, today's hybrid operations are nothing more than new mutations or revisions of previously well-known war doctrines (Cavelty, 2022).

American military analyst Frank Hoffman defines the term “hybrid” as follows: “Hybrid threats represent the coordinated use of different models of combat operations, it includes a combination of both military and non-military means, which in turn include irregular tactics, criminal actions, terrorist acts, to Synergy to achieve political goals” (Renz, Smith, 2016). American researcher Nathan Frayer, who started hybrid research after a twenty-year military career, views hybrid war as containing the idea of “victory of the weak over the strong”. Freire's research is mainly concerned with the possibilities of success by small state and non-state actors using conventional and non-conventional methods. It looks at events from the perspective of great powers (Renz, Smith, 2016).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Flood: It is a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, the purpose of which is to disrupt a network or service by infusing large amounts of information traffic (Webopedia, 2014 AU45: The in-text citation "Webopedia, 2014" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).

Spoofing: A fraudulent scheme to create facsimiles of legitimate websites that easily obtain confidential information from victims.

Patch: Software update code. Vendors are system update codes to mitigate and fix network bugs.

Y2K Bug (The Millennium Bug): A bug in computer program code where the year is represented by its last 2 digits and the program interprets it as 1900 to 1999 instead of 2000 to 2099.

SQL (Structured Query Language) Injection: Type of cyber attack; when a query with infected SQL malware is sent to the database, the system fails to execute the invalid query, a collision occurs, and the system executes the malicious code request.

Executive Bat Files (Batch Files): So-called batch - Text file - a sequence of commands for a computer operating system.

Espionage: Illegal access by a sovereign state to another country's Internet networks, computers or databases in order to obtain confidential information.

Logic Bombs: A software application that causes a system or network shutdown, or complete deletion of data or software.

Virus: Computer code that infects and disrupts a computer system.

Computer Forensics: The branch of forensic science in legal law based on digital forensic evidence.

Botnet: A botnet of infected computers controlled by the attacker through a command-and-control server.

Algorithm: The basis of computer programs, which include a set of instructions for solving computer problems.

Backdoor: Cybercrime, a stealthy method that bypasses any form of network security to gain access to protected system files.

Trapdoors: Unauthorized software that is intentionally added to a program and allows a hacker to gain unauthorized access to a network or software.

Worms: A computer worm is a self-replicating program. It uses the network to send copies of itself to other nodes without any user intervention.

DoS (Denial of Service): An attack on a networked computer or computers that renders the entire system inoperable so that users no longer have access to the network.

Ping: A request (to another computer on the network) to confirm whether there is a connection to it.

Malware: Malicious software.

SQL (Structured Query Language): A programming language for database management.

Stuxnet Virus: A computer worm designed by US-Israeli intelligence services to sabotage Iran's nuclear research facilities.

Internet: A public computer network that originated in the 1970s and has spread worldwide since the 1990s.

DNS (Doman Name System): Internet Protocol, a standard for exchanging data between networked computers and private networks. This standard is also known as the TCP/IP protocol suite.

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