The Eurasian Idea of Nursultan Nazarbayev

The Eurasian Idea of Nursultan Nazarbayev

Yerzhan Saltybayev (Institute of World Economics and Politics Under the Foundation of the First President of Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan) and Lidiya Parkhomchik (Institute of Word Economics and Politics Under the Foundation of the First President of Kazakhstn, Kazakhstan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1950-9.ch011

Abstract

The First President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev had always emphasized the mutual influences of the culture and religions of people living in the country. Having absorbed both the European and Asian traditions Kazakhstan illustrates the principles of a diverse country that could build bridges among West and East. It became obvious that the newly independent nation led by Nursultan Nazarbayev was confronted with the need to find new forms of cooperation with the world community after the major geopolitical change. As a result, the Leader of the Nation proposed the long-term initiative, namely, the Eurasian idea that was designed to create an atmosphere of mutual confidence and cooperation. In this regard, this chapter will briefly identify the preconditions for the introduction of the Eurasian initiative with special emphasis placed on the transformation of Kazakhstan's vision of the issue. As a result, the conclusions of this chapter focus on the further prospects for integration between the Eurasian states within the frameworks of Nazarbayev's Eurasian concept.
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Background

The concept of Eurasianism came to Kazakhstan with Russian influence in the region and serves as a policy doctrine in implementing geopolitical ambitions, goals, and objectives. The Eurasian paradigm justifies Kazakhstan’s ties with China, the West, Asia and the Middle East, counterbalancing Russia (Genté, 2010). This strategy involves a real opening up to the world. By a multi-dimensional foreign policy based on the Eurasianism Kazakhstan identifies itself as bridge lying between Europe and Asia.

For the purpose of review and analysis, the vast body of literature authored by the classical and modern writers of geopolitics and the concepts of Eurasia was studied. The literature on the issue can be conditionally divided into the supporters of the concept of Eurasianism and authors who criticize the concepts of Eurasia. The first group comprises both authors of Russian-origin and non-Russian researchers advocating for strengthening geopolitical ties within the Eurasian space.It is understandable that the founders of Eurasianismthe so-called classical Eurasianists, like,Nikolai Trubetzkoy, Piotr Savyzky, Nikolay Alekseyev,Georgii Florovsky, Andrey Liven, and Georgii Vernadsky, based their ideology on the Russian social-Orthodox school. Born in Europe among the Russian immigrants the Eurasianism movement was designed to oppose both Soviet totalitarianism, as well as liberal individualism of the West (Kofner, 2015).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Eurasian Union (EAU): An organization for regional economic, political and cultural integration proposed by Nursultan Nazarbayev in 1994.

Eurasianism: A political movement inRussia, that posits that Russian civilisation does not belong in the European or Asian categories. It was further developed by Nursultan Nazarbayev, who introduced the concept of “pragmatic Eurasianism”.

Eurasia: A large land area, comprising Europe and Asia. Eurasia is also one of the most important geopolitical concepts.

Eurasian Integration: One of the most important topics for the post-Soviet countries. It includes reestablishing closer political, economic and social relations within the Eurasian region.

Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU): An international organization for regional economic integration formed by Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia in 2015.

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