The Fundamentals of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The Fundamentals of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Kijpokin Kasemsap (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2568-4.ch001
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Abstract

This chapter reveals the overview of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB); OCB and organizational factors; OCB and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB); OCB and organizational identification; OCB and leadership perspectives; OCB, social exchange, and organizational silence; and OCB, abusive supervision, and work engagement. OCB encompasses the positive and constructive task that employees do, of their own volition, which supports co-workers and benefits the company. When the employees feel like the citizens of the organization, they feel that their co-workers are their fellow citizens toward enhancing the helping behaviors. Organization will benefit from encouraging employees to engage in OCB, because it can increase productivity, efficiency and job satisfaction, and reduce costs and rates of employee turnover and absenteeism in the organization. The chapter argues that promoting OCB has the potential to increase organizational performance and gain sustainable competitive advantage in the modern workforce.
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Introduction

Organizational behavior is the study of both group and individual performance and activity within an organization (Kasemsap, 2017a). Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is the discretionary behavior that is not directly rewarded by the organization but has been linked to the positive outcomes, such as the increased job satisfaction and the reduced turnover intention (Gilbert, Laschinger, & Leiter, 2010). OCB has significant importance in the workplace (Kasa & Hassan, 2015). OCB provides a method of managing the interdependencies among members of an organization, which increases the collective outcomes (Serim, Demirbağ, & Yozgat, 2014). Consideration of cultural differences in OCB has become more important over the last few decades, as the workforce has become highly diverse and people from many different ethno-cultural backgrounds work together (Ersoy, Derous, Born, & van der Molen, 2015).

OCB ideas include a wide variety of issues (e.g., employees, acceptance, responsibilities, adherence of rules, and organizational procedures) toward developing positive attitude and job satisfaction (Ahmadi, Nami, & Barvarz, 2014). Increasing organizational competitiveness is a major goal at the managerial level (Popescu, Deaconu, & Popescu, 2015). OCB consists of behaviors to perform the job and these behaviors contribute to the overall success of the organization (Yildirim, 2015). OCB is very important to organizations because they need employees who will do more than their usual job duties (Çınar & Karcıoğlu, 2015) and will provide performance that is beyond expectations (Ng, Ke, & Raymond, 2014).

OCB continues to be recognized as a vital component to organizational effectiveness (Newton, Nowak, & Blanton, 2012). The unit-level OCB has a moderately strong relationship with unit-level performance (Whitman, van Rooy, & Viswesvaran, 2010). Individuals who think they have the power to influence the environment and the outcomes are inclined to engage in OCB (Magdalena, 2014). Personal values, group identification, and a sense of power significantly interact in predicting the change-oriented OCB of employees (Seppälä, Lipponen, Bardi, & Pirttilä-Backman, 2012). Challenge-oriented and affiliation-oriented OCBs have on organizational effectiveness through their impact on workgroup task performance (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Podsakoff, 2011).

This chapter focuses on the literature review through a thorough literature consolidation of OCB. The extensive literature of OCB provides a contribution to practitioners and researchers by revealing the issues and implications of OCB in order to maximize the impact of OCB in the modern workforce.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Leadership: The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do this issue.

Attitude: A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain idea, object, person, or situation.

Organizational Identification: The situation in which the employees and the company share the same goals and values.

Counterproductive Work Behavior: The action of employees conducting against the goals and aims of their employer.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The extent to which an employee's voluntary support and behavior contributes to the organization's success.

Behavior: A response of an individual or group to an action, environment, person, or stimulus.

Leader-Member Exchange Theory: The theory that describes how leaders in groups maintain their position through an array of tacit exchange agreements with their members.

Socialization: The process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, language, social skills, and value to conform to the norms and roles required for the integration into a group or community.

Person-Organization Fit: The congruence between individuals and organizational factors.

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