The Global Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Learning Process

The Global Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Learning Process

Nika Chitadze
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 40
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-4706-2.ch004
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In 1955, the American scientist John McCarthy first used the term “artificial intelligence.” He defined the latter as a program or computer that can think like a human and make logical decisions. It was from here that the foundation was laid for a new field that has great potential for development and can significantly assist humanity in development. Today's world is unimaginable without artificial intelligence. It is used by almost all leading companies, be it Google or Samsung. Artificial intelligence helps us when searching the internet or taking pictures with a smartphone. Without artificial intelligence, no modern electronic device can work. With the development of the world, the possibilities of artificial intelligence are also improving. He is now much smarter than he was a few years ago. However, to what extent can we develop artificial intelligence? Are there any limits?
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Origin And Understanding Of The Term “Artificial Intelligence”

The definition of artificial intelligence cited in the preamble, given by John McCarthy in 1956 at a conference at the University of Dartmouth, is not directly related to the understanding of intelligence in humans. According to McCarthy, AI researchers are free to use methods that are not observed in humans, if necessary to solve specific problems (Dartmouth, 1956).

Explaining his definition, John McCarthy points out: “The problem is that so far we cannot generally determine which computational procedures we want to call intelligent. We understand some of the mechanisms of intelligence and do not understand others. Therefore, within the framework of this science, intelligence is understood only as of the computational component of the ability to achieve goals in the world” (Dartmouth, 1956).

At the same time, there is a point of view according to which intelligence can only be a biological phenomenon.

In English, the phrase artificial intelligence does not have an anthropomorphic connotation: the word intelligence in the context used rather means “the ability to reason” rather than “intelligence” (for which there is an analog of intellect.

The following definitions of artificial intelligence are given:

  • Scientific direction, within the framework of which the problems of hardware or software modeling of those types of human activity that are traditionally considered to be intellectual are set and solved.

  • The property of intelligent systems to perform functions (creative), which are traditionally considered the prerogative of a person. At the same time, an intelligent system is a technical or software system capable of solving problems traditionally considered creative, belonging to a specific subject area, knowledge about which is stored in the memory of such a system. The structure of an intelligent system includes three main blocks - a knowledge base, a solver, and an intelligent interface that allows you to communicate with a computer without special programs for data entry.

  • Direction in computer science and information technology, the task of which is to recreate intelligent reasoning and actions using computer systems and other artificial devices.

  • The ability of the system to correctly interpret external data, learn from such data and use the knowledge gained to achieve specific goals and objectives through flexible adaptation.

One of the particular definitions of intelligence, common to humans and “machines”, can be formulated as follows: “Intelligence is the ability of a system to create, in the course of self-learning, programs (primarily heuristic) for solving problems of a certain class of complexity and to solve these problems” (Business Horizons, 2019).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Artificial Intelligence: Is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Simulation Game: Is a genre of games that are designed to mimic activities you'd see in the real world. The purpose of the game may be to teach you something.

Loebner Prize: An annual competition in artificial intelligence that awards prizes to the computer programs considered by the judges to be the most human-like.

CAPTCHA: Is a type of challenge–response test used in computing to determine whether the user is human. The term was coined in 2003 by Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper, and John Langford.

Hutter Prize: Is a cash prize funded by Marcus Hutter which rewards data compression improvements on a specific 1 GB English text file, with the goal of encouraging research in artificial intelligence (AI).

Mechanical Computer: A computer built from mechanical components such as levers and gears rather than electronic components.

Machine Learning: Is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data.

Robotics: An interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering. Robotics involves design, construction, operation, and use of robots.

Turing Test: Originally called the imitation game by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.

Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS): Denotes a software system which employs, in parallel, a combination of methods and techniques from artificial intelligence subfields.

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