The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Levent Coşkun Erkekoğlu (Marmara University, Turkey) and İpek Madi (Marmara University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2939-2.ch006


For Jordanian economy, the insufficiency of its natural resources, the dependence of the volatility of its workers' remittances on the global oil price fluctuations, the effect of the regional chaos on its economic sectors, rising requirements on education and health due to the increasing population generated by refugee influx are some of its important issues. Agricultural products are among the country's main exports. Nevertheless, the water scarcity in the Middle East which may be defined “the key issue” to be solved for the welfare of Jordan (and the Middle Eastern-Islamic World) has been a block for its economy. Improving the bilateral relations and “skilled partnerships” with Turkey, would be a solution for the Jordanian economic issues, for the general welfare of the region as well. One specific sector may be healthcare services through which an integrated system may be formed for the future well-being of the Middle Eastern and Islamic World. An important issue for Jordan and the Middle Eastern-Islamic countries is that the success of economic policies, the stability, the peace, safety and welfare of the general are dependent on how “justice and compassion” are defined and on the mentality or belief from which they are derived.
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General Information And Brief History Of The Country

Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah or Jordan is a Middle Eastern country, bordered by Saudi Arabia on the South, by Iraq on the east, by Syria on the north, Palestinian Hills and Israel on the east; (Waskey, n.d., p.498) with latitudes 29° and 34° N, and longitudes 35° and 40° E. (Honorary Consul of The Hashemite Kingdom, 2016).

Its total area is 92,300 sq km; coastline is 26 km; Jabal Ram is its highest point with 1.754 m; its lowest point is Dead Sea with -396 m. (The Robinson Library, n.d.).

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is the conventional long form of the country name; Jordan is the conventional short form; the local long form is Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah; and the former was Transjordan. (index mundi, n.d.). The origin of the name of Jordan was “derived from a Hebrew and Canaanite word” and is related to the River Jordan. Its meaning is “descend”; as the flowing river into the Dead Sea. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. online; 2016).

During the Eastern Roman period, throughout Jordan, there was a great act of construction. The major cities of the Roman era developed and there was a boom in the regional population. In the 4th century, Christianity had been progressively accepted in the area; so that the churches and chapels grew suddenly across Jordan, and many of them were clustered together on the ancient Roman settlements’ foundations. Thereby, many pagan temples were destroyed. For the plague of 542 CE and the Sassanian invasion of 614 CE, there was a severe depopulation in the 6th and 7th centuries CE, In Jordan. The Sassanians, occupied Jordan, Palestine and Syria until the Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius regained the area in 629 CE. (Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, History- Christendom and the Byzantines, n.d.).

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