The Importance of Arugula (Eruca sativa) and Pharmacological Effects of Different Phytochemical Components in Its Content for Human Health

The Importance of Arugula (Eruca sativa) and Pharmacological Effects of Different Phytochemical Components in Its Content for Human Health

Özlem Ateş Duru, Fatma Özsel Özcan Araç, Ozan Aldemir
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-5129-8.ch016
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Abstract

Rocket salad (Eruca sativa), a member of the Brassicaceae family, is an important vegetable for human health because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiproliferative, and antiangiogenesis properties, as well as its rich chemical composition. Important phytochemical substances in rocket salad, including flavonoids and glucosinolates, have an important function in human health protection. These components can scavenge free radicals, reduce lipid peroxidation, and have anticancer effects by activating apoptosis in cancer cells. As a result, in terms of defending human health, it is believed that the consumption of this vegetable has a significant role in protecting against diseases caused by numerous factors and in the healthy functioning of the body's immune system.
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Introduction

Arugula salad, also known as arugula, is a very important plant in terms of human health and belongs to the Brassicaceae family, which is characterized by its unique leaves. Species belonging to the genus Eruca and Diplotaxis are considered arugula. Arugula, also called Eruca sativa, is found in different parts of the world and is known as the most consumed type (Tripodi et al., 2017). A significant part of the different phytochemicals in arugula consists of different components such as flavonoids, phenolic components, glucosinolate, vitamin C and carotenoids. These components in the content of arugula are responsible for different pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, cytoprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, diuretic, hepatoprotective activity (Sjaafar & Sjaafar, 2019). Although the flavonoids contained in arugula (Eruca sativa) include kaemferol, isorhamnetin, rhamnocitrine, quercetin, and their glycosides, the effective properties of these components such as free radical scavenger, lipid peroxidation inhibitor, enzymatic activity modulation are of great importance for the protection of human health (Hetta et al., 2017; Cuellar et al., 2021).

This chapter is aimed to give general information about arugula, which has various biological activities with its important biochemical components in terms of human health, whose importance is increasingly understood in this respect, and how the general mechanism of action of arugula in humans is in terms of health and how it shows this effect. In addition, it is aimed to enlighten the subject by evaluating the studies that have been done in this field in recent years.

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