The Influence of the Labor Sector in Knowledge Management: The Case of Graduate in Business Administration for Sustainability

The Influence of the Labor Sector in Knowledge Management: The Case of Graduate in Business Administration for Sustainability

Leticia Refugio Chavarria (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico) and Edgar Oliver Cardoso Espinosa (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico)
Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 9
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0457-3.ch003
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Abstract

Institutions of higher education in Mexico, play a role in human development systems, since they are the generators of academic and professional knowledge and skills to meet the challenges of the country and the world. In what has reflected the state as concern through the national education system is one that relates to the training of professionals with a profile that meets the expectations of an increasingly demanding business world and global day. Postgraduate studies have undergone a series of transformations due to its expansion, diversification, and the demands that today's society presents them, and that has forced them to make a thorough review of its programs in order to improve quality and meet the formation of high level human capital. The chapter aims to: Analyze the importance of knowledge management and its relationship with labor and that this contributes to train competent specialists, who know the technologies and tools for the sustainable management and protection of the environment.
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Introduction

This section is intended to describe how they have influenced the theories of human capital in knowledge management.

According to Suárez (1997) Theory of Human Capital takes as its basis the principles of neoclassical economic theory and functionalist sociology based on maximizing profits and benefits as well as the balancing market mechanisms. The labor market is considered as a homogeneous entity, composed of employees and employers who are facing each other for market sell buy what you need: the worker sells his labor and employer purchase. The salary that is assigned to each worker depends on productivity, directly related to their educational level. (Fernandez J., p.32, 2013).

The theory of human capital from its origins until today, remains an influential conceptual vision in the context of globalization, because it regards education as an investment that will generate profit in the future and promotes various forms of economic growth: Rate labor, technical production, research, physical mobilization and optimization of functional mobility. See Table 1: Origins and evolution of the theory of human capital.

Table 1.
Origins and evolution of the theory of human capital
Principal AuthorYearInformationVariables
Adam Smith1776Anticipates the definition of human capital: includes explicitly as part of the fixed capital of each nation, acquisition and maintenance of skills and knowledge that can be used to create wealth by workers.Human Capital
Growth, creation of wealth of a nation
Jacob Mincer1958The influence of variables such as education and experience in determining differences in income among workers.Education and Income
Arrow1962The production capacity of workers improved with experience at work.Production capacity and work experience.
Gary Becker1964Human capital is a decision that involves many periods: some initial periods, which is done investment spending, and a subsequent, where profits are gathered. Thus, in the case of the company, the costs (expenses) of training are opposed to the higher future labor productivity (profits).Human capital formation, investment spending and benefits.
Theodore Shultz1968Production factors crucial to improving the welfare of the poor are not space, energy and the availability of arable land; the decisive factors are the improvement of the quality of the population and advances in knowledge.Improving the quality of the population, advances in knowledge
Spence1973Workers invest in education to send a signal to its best potential employers. For their part, employers link their wage offers to the level of education of workers precisely because high wage offer intended to ensure that workers self-select themselves: candidates who are more productiveLevel of education and wage offer.
Edward Denison1979He was one of the pioneers in stop considering education as a commodity and start considering it as a form of capitalEducation and Capital
Mushkin1980Who said to understand the importance of education as a factor in capital formation is useful to think of the analogy of how natural resources of a nation, can not by themselves without improvements lead end products with a high value
added.
Education and training Human Capital
Blaug1983Their study is done from the perspective of methodological individualism, that is, from the perspective of all social phenomena should be studied starting from its foundation in individual behavior.Individualism and social phenomena.
Fermoso1997Education as an important factor in the formation of human capital, is conceived in two ways, as consumption and investment.Human capital formation, consumption and investment
David O´connor2002Investment in Human Capital and economic openness associated technology.
Of all the factors considered individual talent is a key element when designing educational policies, because if the differences in education levels are due to differences in the talents of individuals, there is no reason, from the perspective of efficiency, to facilitate access to education
Investment in Human Capital, economic openness and technology
Checchi2006Of all the factors considered individual talent is a key element when designing educational policies, because if the differences in education levels are due to differences in the talents of individuals, there is no reason, from the perspective of efficiency, to facilitate access to educationIndividual talent, education policies and access to education.

Source: Prepared based on Villalobos Monroy, G. & Pedroza Flores, R. (2009)

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