The Marketing of Information and Knowledge Management

The Marketing of Information and Knowledge Management

José Poças Rascão (Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2394-9.ch005
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This chapter discusses the issues of customers´ satisfaction and needs, in terms of information, as a basis for the practice of marketing in information management. It underlines the arguments of the relationship between Marketing and information science. The main idea is that Marketing practice cannot occur without information about customers and to customers. This way, the relationship of marketing to information management, in information science, is emphasized. Likewise, the importance of the studies and research on Marketing of information, as philosophical approach of the information management process, is highlighted. The structure of the chapter synthesizes the existing academic work while seeking to generate new knowledge. Moreover, it presents the promotion and communication of information in organizations from the evolution of the concept of Marketing, in an integrated manner. Finally, the implications for future research are advanced.
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Methodology Of Approach

This is a descriptive and analytic approach seeking to know and analyze the existing scientific or cultural contributions on this subject, from the review of the existing literature. The survey was structured based on the systemic approach to the understanding of the problems of post modernity in the work of Erikson (1998), looking for practical, operational or troubleshooting application of “real life” organizations.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Competitive Intelligence: According to Ferreira (2004) AU148: The in-text citation "Ferreira (2004)" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. , there are two definitions of the term “intelligence”: one related to the Latin word Intelligentia , which corresponds to College to learn, understand, and the other related to the English term which means Intelligence information service. These definitions are in accordance with the definition of Fuld (1995) AU149: The in-text citation "Fuld (1995)" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. , in which intelligence is the result of an information service, through a process of understanding the context, provides information parsed that serves to support decision-making.Among the various existing definitions in the literature, the SCIP settings – Strategic and Competitive Intelligence Professionals and ABRAIC-Brazilian Association of competitive intelligence analysts, in that competitive intelligence is a process of management of competitive environment and analysis of results, under the prism of domestic issues, in order to support decision-making. The competitive intelligence helps the managers of any organization to take the decision on information from various sources. Is a continuous process that involves legal and ethical information collection, analysis and dissemination of intelligence-controlled to the decision makers.

Information Management and Knowledge Management: Davenport (1998) AU150: The in-text citation "Davenport (1998)" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. proposes the term information management as a structured set of activities which include how companies get, distribute and use information and knowledge. This approach assumes a common basis for the process of management of information and knowledge. From the Decade of 80, the issue of information throughout the entire process of discussion of restructuring of organizational models. The emphasis of the Japanese model was the establishment of the management process, thorough in which information was deeply used for incorporation of innovations as for improvements, referencing in customers ' approach to quality products were incorporated into the organizational process. Instruments have been developed for the evaluation of processes in which information plays the central role. The business process reengineering of the information, marked by significant emphasis on the need to incorporate aspects linked to the technological component of the information area.

Marketing: During the first thirty years of the last century, the success was achieved by the companies that offer the lowest price. The products were generally not distinguished and the ability to produce the lowest price was the secret to success. However in the 1930 the demand for consumer goods was walking to the saturation and as such the customers/consumers have begun to be more demanding than just the basic performance. According to Igor Ansoff (1978) in the early years of the Decade of 1930, General Motors has triggered a shift of production to the mentality of the market. This change symbolized the displacement of standardized products for differentiated. In contrast to the “guideline for the production” the new secret of success began to move to the “marketing orientation”. Promotion, advertising, sale and other ways of influencing the consumer became primary concerns of managers. The shift toward marketing orientation meant an offset of an introverted perspective and turned into her to an extroverted and open perspective. Also, it meant a change in the mentality of the production managers for managers with marketing mentality, which led to a struggle for power and the need to acquire new skills to find new solutions to problems, modifications of structures and systems and the acceptance of new levels of uncertainty about the future. It was only after the Second World War that many industrial enterprises were driven by new technologies, primarily toward a belated marketing orientation and then towards the post-industrial era more turbulence. At this point the total marketing concept which established a balance between conflicting demands of marketing and production. The literature review takes us from the School of Scientific Management of Taylor in the first decades of the last century, until the evolution of the concept of marketing today whose focus centers on customer marketing and positioning of the company. The Delta model Hax (2001) AU151: The in-text citation "Hax (2001)" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. characterizes the evolution of organizations with more product-centric focus, through a more recent step of customer orientation and the market, to arrive at new forms of relationship with customers, competitors, in order to ensure a sustainable, competitive positioning in the context of globalization.

Information Science: Borko (l968) defined “information science as a discipline that investigates the properties and behavior of the information, the forces that govern your flow and processing to optimize its accessibility and use”. “It relates to the body of knowledge pertaining to production, collection, compilation, storage, retrieval, interpretation, transmission, processing and use of the information”. According to Borko (1968) the information science investigates the properties and behavior of the information, the forces governing the informational flow and means of the processing and information processing for the optimization of access and use. It is an interdisciplinary science and related to various fields derived as mathematics, logistics, Linguistics, psychology, computer technology, search operations, the graphic arts, communications, library science, management and other similar fields. Has both a component of pure science, which investigates the subject without taking into consideration its application, as a component of applied science, which develops services and products. Librarianship and documentation are applied aspects of information science ( Borko, 1968 ). For Goffman (l970) the objective of information science is to establish a unified scientific approach to studying the various phenomena that involve the notion of information, Werther such features are found in biological processes in human existence or on machines created by humans.

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