The Need for Multidimensional and Longitudinal Teacher Training

The Need for Multidimensional and Longitudinal Teacher Training

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9047-8.ch001
(Individual Chapters)
No Current Special Offers


This chapter focuses on the need for multidimensional and longitudinal teacher preparation that begins in the educator preparation program (EPP) and continues into and throughout the school district level for all teachers. Discussion of topics that are foundational for teachers include continuous improvement, assessment, use of evidence-based and high leverage practices, collaboration, feedback, and self-reflection. Additionally, specific strategies and resources that can support teachers in planning for the academic and social-emotional needs and success of students will also be shared.
Chapter Preview

Chapter Objectives

  • 1.

    Understand how history has impacted educational systems, programs, and practices to date.

  • 2.

    Understand how strategic preparation and professional learning better supports learners in an inclusive classroom.

  • 3.

    Explain how the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle combined with assessment allows for continuous improvement in educator preparation programs, school districts and classrooms.

  • 4.

    Discuss how evidence-based and high leverage practices can support teachers in reaching all students in a classroom.

  • 5.

    Understand positive implications of self-reflection and feedback for teachers and how both can impact the improvement of teaching practices.



There is a dire demand for teachers across the United States, especially in special education, where there continues to be a severe shortage of qualified teachers (Billingsley & Bettini, 2019; Ingersoll et al., 2014; Toropova et al., 2021). Data indicate that fewer individuals are choosing to go into education as a profession and there have been significant decreases in enrollment in educator preparation programs (EPPs) over the past decade (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017; Sutcher et al., 2016). The data from the 2008–2009 to the 2015–2016 academic years show the number of individuals enrolled in teacher preparation programs across the United States fell by 37.8%. This drop in enrollment means that there could be potentially as few as 200,000 available teacher hires each year by 2025, resulting in a deficit of more than 100,000 teachers annually (National Center for Education Statistics, 2018; Sutcher et al., 2016).

With so much at stake, it is imperative that EPPs and educational agencies look at teacher recruitment efforts through a critical lens and that such efforts are geared to both attract and retain dedicated individuals. The most critical aspect of recruitment and retention is found in high-quality preparation programs (Carver-Thomas, 2018) and EPPs must therefore be cognizant of the need to provide an array of pathways, as not all teachers go through traditional, four-year routes to certification. In fact, according to Carver-Thomas (2018), teachers of color are more likely to enter the profession through alternative programs. Recruitment efforts can take place by making education a viable option for high school students, by giving paraprofessionals accessibility to teaching degrees, and by creating articulation agreements with two-year technical and community colleges.

However, while some school districts and states may be tempted to raise teacher recruitment by lowering requirements to enter the field, research shows that recruitment and retention are emphatically intertwined (Carver-Thomas, 2018; Ingersoll et al., 2021; See et al., 2020; Sutcher et al., 2016). Teacher recruitment should not be a means to simply get more individuals into EPPs; instead, the goal of teacher recruitment should be to attract high-quality applicants who portray the aptitude and dispositions suited for the field of education, as individuals with such skills and temperaments are more likely to stay in the profession (Klassen et al., 2021). Lowering standards to recruit does not raise teacher retention rates and in fact exacerbates the problem, as underprepared teachers are more likely to leave the field, thus causing a constant cycle of recruitment efforts (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). Conversely, research has confirmed that EPPs are lacking organization and structural supports that systematically reinforce candidates to use effective practices in the classroom, which calls for shifts in identification of core practices that increase capacity of novice teachers to improve student outcomes (Ball & Forzani, 2009; Bryk et al., 2015; Grossman et al., 2009; McLeskey & Brownell, 2015).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Evidence-Based Practices: Effective educational strategies supported by substantiation and research.

In-Service Teacher: Teachers of record who instruct within a classroom setting.

Self-Reflection: The process of examining, linking, and developing meaning from lived experiences to gain further understanding of ourselves and the world around us.

Professional Learning: Specialized training that supports teachers in learning more about a specific subject; also known as “professional development.”

Inclusion: An approach to learning in which all students, regardless of ability, are fully accepted members of their school community and educational setting.

Culturally Responsive Teaching: Connecting students’ cultures, languages, and life experiences with what they learn in school.

Continuous Improvement: A cyclical process intended to advance processes within a system.

Pre-Service Teacher: Teacher candidates who are pursuing a teaching degree and certification.

Assessment: A variety of methods or tools that are used to measure and document student progress.

Educator Preparation Program: A state-approved course of study that prepares students for teaching in a classroom setting by meeting specific requirements and certifications.

High-Leverage Practices: Instructional approaches that teachers can use to teach various learners and content.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: