The Process of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Biomarkers and Their Relationship With Diseases

The Process of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Biomarkers and Their Relationship With Diseases

Sedat Demir (HC Clinic, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3594-3.ch001

Abstract

Inflammation is a physiopathological process that has been known for a long time but its relation with acute and chronic diseases and its role in the development of disease is becoming better understood. Diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, various organ cancers, rheumatologic diseases, the most common diseases of the liver, lungs and kidneys are either closely related to inflammatory processes or are caused by direct inflammatory processes. In one aspect, the aging process is a progressive inflammatory process. The understanding of what inflammation is and the mechanisms by which the inflammation occurs in the organism and by accurately identifying and following the clinical markers that show the course of inflammation. In this section, basic issues related to inflammation is examined.
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Immune Systems And Components

Human immunity is mainly created by two main elements.

  • 1.

    Natural Immunity

  • 2.

    Acquired Immunity

    • Natural Immunity: It is a naturally occurring immunity which occurs due to genetic factors during embryogenesis, carried from one generation to another.

    • Acquired immunity: These are the answers that we do not bring with birth but that the organism develops as we face pathogens over the years.

      • ¡ Both natural and acquired immunity are mainly accomplished by humoral and cellular components. In natural immunity, a variety of chemical mediators such as cells, complement and cytokines are present in the blood or tissues, such as macrophages, neutrophils and natural clays lymphocytes. Although the main cells of acquired immunity are t and b lymphocytes, the main humoral component is antibodies. Natural immunity consists of cellular and chemical defence mechanisms. It only responds to germs and damaged tissues.

    • Monocytes: the form of tissue macrophages in the peripheral blood, and they produce specific and nonspecific responses in many bacterial and virus infections.

    • Eosinophils and Basophil Cells: cells that are found mainly in the tissue in the peripheral blood.

      • ¡ Eosinophil cells are primarily responsible for the control of parasitic infections and they are also responsible for the development of allergic responses.

      • ¡ Basophil cells, also known as mast cells, regulate vascular permeability and provide eradication and immunization of allergic responses to bacterial, virus and parasitic infections.

      • ¡ Eosinophil basophil and mast cells are often responsible for allergic reactions caused by exaggerated immune responses (Barten at al. 2008)

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