The Resistance of Memories and the Story of Resistance: July 15 Coup Attempt and Social Movement in Turkey

The Resistance of Memories and the Story of Resistance: July 15 Coup Attempt and Social Movement in Turkey

Fadime Dilber (Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5357-1.ch022
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This study focused on the relationship of cross-media and social movements. The role of the new media in social mobility has gained a universal qualification though not directly but with the function as a communication platform between individuals by informing and guiding them all. Coup attempt on July 15, 2016 is one of the most important events in the history of the Republic of Turkey. In this coup attempt, the media, contrary to other coups, moved with the people who went out to the streets as an anti-coup. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan invited the public to social movement by using the mass media and new media in the prevention of the coup attempt of July 15th. When the attitude of the national media is supported by citizens and mass media, new media and those struggling against the coup have gained strength and helped to make the coup attempt unsuccessful. This chapter examines the story structure of struggle exhibited against the July 15 coup attempt in the transmedia.
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We are witnessing a period that economic, political, and social structures are changing rapidly and that world is experiencing fundamental change and transformation. Particularly with the process of industrialization, urbanization, modernization accelerated from the middle of the 20th century, the changes in the communities can affect both their own geography and other continents. In all these changes and transformations, the position and role of social events, social actors are coming up and are being argued (Demircioğlu, 2014).

The media is accepted as the fourth pillar in addition to three known pillars of democracy: legislature, executive and judiciary. Media is the name given to mass communication tools such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, internet which can send messages to the masses to inform them about the events, and can create platforms for people to be informed, educated and to discuss social problems. Media is a powerful guidance tool. Media functions as the fourth pillar of democracy in democratic countries. It is also possible to control societies more easily through media. However, the development and widespread use of new media technologies has reversed this situation. As seen in the recent popular movements, people who are aware of the developments in the world thanks to social network and internet were organized on social networks and by 3G and they took to the streets. New media technologies have now taken place in every aspect of daily life and have had a great influence on the development of social, cultural, political and economic life. The world is aware of the power of new media technologies. New media technology is action oriented and requires organizing in order to make the right use of it, and the structure of this technology makes it possible (Türk, 2013).

The coups that are considered as social movements in Turkey's political life, poses an important place. Many times in the history of 94 years, it has been faced with social movements such as junta, coup, postmodern coup, memorandum or e-memorandum, declaration, insurrection and attempt. The coup attempt on July 15, 2016 is one of them. It is separated from other coups in terms of the quality of new media, the point of view of information and orientation, the failure of the attempt, the awareness of the public about attempt.

While it is seen that the coups in the past were announced to the public through traditional mass media; the coup attempt of July 15, 2016 was carried out through new media. News about important strategic areas was attacked by the coupists such as military vehicles, bridges, airports, military bases and Grand National Assembly was spread. Within the context of social movements for the prevention of 15 July coup attempt, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan invited public to a social movement by using mass media and new media with live broadcasts. The number of tweets, from 10 pm on the night of the coup attempt on July 15 has continuously increased, and this increase rate reached 223 percent on 16 July. The maximum number of tweets was reached after President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's connection to CNN Türk TV via FaceTime. It is possible to say that the effect of the social media on the failure of 15 July coup attempt. On the 15th and 16th of July, the number of tweets surpassed millions (Miş et al. 2016, pp. 7-71).

In the end, how effectively changing and evolving technology is used to prevent dangerous social movements such as coups; the response of the people to this call with sensitivity has turned into social movement and success was achieved against the dangerous coup attempt. It is possible to say that the fact that the power of new media and mass media to create perception in society resulted in a social movement for this coup is undeniable. The transformation of the media, the pluralization and the development of communication technology has made the work of the coupists difficult. Although they had a plan to leave TRT open and close other channels, they could not get the result they wanted (Miş et al. 2016, pp. 7-71).

In this study, the role of the new media on the transformation of the 15 July coup attempt to collective movement, guidance of people to each other against the attempt, establishment of resistance platform and movement of people to act together with national unity and solidity is examined. We can say that ordinary citizens and the important people in the administration of the country like the president and the prime minister turn out to be broadcasters and reveal the importance of the new media for the organization of the people.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Social media: Digital platforms where you can follow people based on your interests, get simultaneous information, and share that information called social media.

Storytelling: Along with the emergence of new media tools, storytelling has become a universe expanding with faster and more narrative contribution. The story telling method, which is also shaped by today's new communication tools, is confronted with the concept of “trans-media storytelling.”

Internet: It is a constantly growing communication network that is widespread around the world, where many computer systems are interconnected.

Military Coup Attempt: The military coup means the fact that armed forces take control of the administration of the country.

FaceTime: It was firstly introduced in 2010 with the iPhone 4 and is a video call service.

Social Movements: The movements of revolt, rebellion and resistance are the rise of the social relationship based on conflict. Although all these movements have different forms and appearances, they may be said to have acted with similar rejection and opposition. Rebellions sometimes have a social, cultural, or political goal but often base on a sense of rejection. Here, the basis is objection against social or cultural order that is perceived as injustice and inequality.

Cross Media: Investors who want to take advantage of all the media's integrations and produce in all aspects have invested in multiple mediums and have grown in the cross direction.

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