The Structure, Topological, and Functional Dimension of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, ATP

The Structure, Topological, and Functional Dimension of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, ATP

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4108-0.ch003


New structures of biomolecules have been constructed: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids. It is shown that glucose molecules and ribose molecules have dimensions of 15 and 12, respectively. The enantiomorphic forms of biomolecules in space of higher dimension make it possible to explain the experimentally observed facts of branching of chains of biomolecules in one of the enantiomorphic forms and the absence of chain branching in another enantiomorphic form. The enantiomorphic forms of the tartaric acid molecule in a space of higher dimension reveal the cause of the reversal in different directions of the polarization plane of light in two opposite forms.
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From Multidimensional Phase Spaces Of Dynamical System To Multidimensionality Of Biomolecules

The author has for many years studied the phase spaces of various dynamical systems: stationary flows of compressible media (Vooleys, Gusika & Zhizhin, 1971, 1972; Vooleys, Harachka & Zhizhin, 1977; Zhizhin, 1972, 1977, 2004a), flow of incompressible media (Zhizhin & Ufimtsev, 1977, 1978; Zhizhin, 1980, 1987; Zhizhin & Onattsky, 1981), flow in reactors with chemical reactions (Gusika & Zhizhin, 1980; Zhizhin, 1980, 1984, 1988; Zhizhin & Segal, 1985, 1986). In these studies, as a rule, it was necessary to consider the multidimensional phase space of systems of differential equations, to investigate their special and singular points and the structure of the phase space as a whole. This led to an analysis of the spatial inhomogeneity that arise when the components of the medium interact under the influence of external influences. In particular this led to the formation of standing and traveling waves of chemical reactions: polymerization reactions (Zhizhin, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1992, 1997 a, b, c, 2000; Zhizhin et al., 1986 a, b; Zhizhin & Segal, 1986, 1988 a, b; Zhizhin & Obukhova, 1997), gas chemical reactions and detonation waves (Zhizhin & Larina, 1994; Zhizhin, 2005, 2008, 2009), waves of chemical reactions in condensed media (Zhizhin & Poritskaya, 1994; Zhizhin & Obukhova, 1995; Zhizhin, 2004 b). The interest in the formation of structures leads to the study of systems of differential equations and their phase spaces describing various processes in nature: the formation of “veins” of minerals (Zhizhin, 2004 c, d), waves of biological populations (Zhizhin & Bolshakova, 2000; Zhizhin, 2004 e, 2005 a, b, c), harvest programming (Zhizhin, 2011), formation of a large-scale structure of the Universe (Zhizhin, 2008), motion of prominences on the Sun (Zhizhin, 2010).

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