The Study of the Epidemiology and Clinical Features of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

The Study of the Epidemiology and Clinical Features of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Ranjit Barua, Sudipto Datta, Amit Roychowdhury, Pallab Datta
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4414-3.ch002
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Epidemiology is the technique used to detect the origins of health outcomes and diseases in inhabitants. In epidemiology, the patient, the individual, and community are viewed mutually. Epidemiology is not only the analysis of health in inhabitants; it also includes applying the information enlarged by the analysis of public-based practice. In case of medicine, the practice of epidemiology is both an art and science. Currently, COVID-19 has spread all around the world. It is basically a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Through the binding of receptor in gene region of its spike protein, ACE2 is bounded by corona virus. In this chapter, the authors summarized the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment prognosis of COVID-19. A complete consideration will help to control the disease.
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Epidemiology Of Sars-Cov-2

The novel coronavirus of unknown type was first spread from the seafood market of Wuhan, China from 12th Dec 2019. Many studies showed that bats can be the main source of this novel coronavirus transmission to the human population (Giovanetti et al; 2020) (Paraskevis et al; 2020). There is lack of evidence to prove that the SAR-CoV-2 spread from the seafood marked presented at Wuhan, China. Which in turn points towards the bats because earlier bats were found out to be a virus carrier of both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Hampton et al; 2005) (Banerjee et al; 2019) (Li et al; 2005). After the genomic sequencing of the virus was done it was found out that genomic sequence identity matched with the Bat CoV RaTG13 with a similarity of 96.2% (Zhou et al; 2020) which showed the scientists that SARS-CoV-2 and Bat CoV RaTG13 originated from the same ancestor but bats are not sold in the seafood market of the Wuhan, China (Wu et al; 2020). COVID-19 has spread worldwide. As per the data till April 2020, COVID-19 has highest number of patients in US followed by Spain, Italy, Germany, France and China, whereas Italy was more significantly affected by COVID-19. Maximum fatality cases were reported in elderly patients. At that time, the fatality rate of Italy was 7.2% (G. Onder et al; 2020) (Livingston et al; 2020). Also the fatality rate in Italy was mainly affected by the patients aged 70 years or more. The fatality rate of Italy was described with the help of demographic features .The data from US and other countries is obtained in the number of resources (Zheng et al; 2020) (Dong et al; 2020). Till the date 28th September, 2020, there are 33,034,598 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 996,342 deaths (Figure. 1) (WHO; 3:52pm CEST, 28 September 2020).

Figure 1.

COVID-19 confirmed cases referred by WHO

(Data last updated: 2020/09/28, 3:52 pm CEST)

Key Terms in this Chapter

Treatment: A process where a patient is given medical facilities to recover or fight against the disease or illness.

WHO: World Health Organization is a statutory organization of the United Nations that observes the main health related issues worldwide.

SARS-CoV-2: A virus which effects human bodies and extremely transmittable also pathogenic viral infection which first spread from the seafood market of Wuhan, China from 12th Dec 2019; now spreads worldwide.

Epidemiology: A scientific study process where a data driven systematically to find out the risk factor and causes of healthcare-oriented conditions and facts in definite inhabitants.

COVID-19: The pandemic situation due to spreading SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic occurs in 2019 and still continue.

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