The Typological and Psychological Features of the Entrepreneur and Their Impact on Ethical Behavior

The Typological and Psychological Features of the Entrepreneur and Their Impact on Ethical Behavior

Svetlana Gorobievschi (Technical University of Moldova, Moldova) and Lavinia Nădrag (Ovidius University of Constanta, Romania)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3773-1.ch002

Abstract

Throughout the knowledge-based human society development, the human factor in organizational management has become a competitive factor due to its professional competence and social skills. The authors of this research have set the aim of characterizing the entrepreneur from the social-psychological perspective that influences his/her ethical behavior. The authors have dealt with the typological and psychological traits from a theoretical perspective, have summarized the concept of temperament and character showing that there is interaction between them; also, they have characterized and classified them into groups, providing several examples. In the practical part, the authors conducted tests on students at the Technical University of Moldova using psychological evaluation tests of temperament and character, proposed by scholars well-known in this field.
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Introduction

In the market economy when competition is getting fierce in an activity that tends to be sustainable for the enterprise, it is important how employees are treated, what forms of communication are used, which the attitude to customers, suppliers, competitors is. A special role in these activities lies with the entrepreneur as formal leader, but more importantly is the problem of his/her formation and training as a real leader. Consequently, each entrepreneur follows his/her own path for achieving this goal.

Scientists claim that approximately half of the human personality variations are defined by genetic factors. However, it is known that personality is based on two completely different components: character and temperament. To make clear the issue proposed by the paper, the authors aim to investigate the human being not biologically and psychologically, but from the position of managerial psychology concepts that recognize the entrepreneur as a product of socio-economic and psychological relationships (see Gorobievschi, 2009: 309). It is also important to remember the contribution of various scholars who partially contributed to the formation of a complete picture of personality, including the entrepreneur’s. In literature and elsewhere, there are many definitions of personality, each capturing different aspects of this vast concept.

Definitions of Personality and Its Relations With the Typological and Psychological Features

Every man, Peter Drucker (1984: 21) noted, including the entrepreneur, is a unique and unrepeatable being. Most entrepreneurs are a unique blend of different personality types and all their features are present to a certain extent in each of us. Some personality traits, however, are predominant and they eventually dictate our personality. The theoretical definition of personality developed by psychologists was oriented towards the understanding and explaining of the ways of being and functioning, i.e. the psycho-physiological body that characterizes the human person. Thus, the “Dictionary of Psychology” by Norbert Sillamy views personality as” the most stable element of a person’s behavior, which shows his character and distinguishes him from another person” (Sillamy, 1996, 231). For sociologists personality is the “sociocultural expression of human individuality” - in the opinion of scientists C. Zamfir and L.Vlasceanu (1998: 556) expressed in the “Dictionary of Sociology”. Among the many definitions of personality, the definition provided by G.W. Allport in his paper “The structure and personality development” is as follows: Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic thinking and behavior ” (Allport, 1981: 48).

In the “Dictionary of Psychology”, whose editor is Ursula Șchiopu (1997;123), behavior and thinking refer to the general availability and the characteristics expressed by a person (to each other), outlining his/her specific identity. The author compiles different opinions, and draws the following conclusion – “Personality is defined as the individual, psychological and physiological unit, the result of merging innate and acquired elements which determine a person's behavioral characteristics”.

The psychological personality through its characteristics, throughout life, is the raw material from which different psychological types are built. From the psychological point of view, the main parts of a personality are: temperament, that is innate; aptitudes that have an innate component - talent, for example, and others acquired through practice - capabilities or abilities/skills; character is mostly formed under the influence of the social environment. TAC relationship (Temperament - Aptitudes - Character) is a ratio between the innate and the acquired factors. Virtually, the whole TAC ensemble determines the psychological type for each individual. Therefore, in order to achieve a categorization of entrepreneurs from this perspective, it is important to treat each component separately.

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