The Use of Microorganism-Derived Enzymes for Bioremediation of Soil Pollutants

The Use of Microorganism-Derived Enzymes for Bioremediation of Soil Pollutants

Joan Mwihaki Nyika (Technical University of Kenya, Kenya)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4888-2.ch004
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Abstract

Contamination of soils by xenobiotic compounds is a growing concern for environmentalists amidst the rise of anthropogenic activities that encourage such contamination practices. The use of microbial enzymes is a viable alternative to degrade and mineralize these contaminants, which is a growing research interest owing to its eco-friendly nature. This chapter explores the categories of enzymes used in soil bioremediation such as oxidoreductases and hydrolases, their mechanism of action, and their merits and demerits. Furthermore, molecular biology techniques useful in enhancing the production capacity, stability, activity, and shelf life of bioremediation enzymes is discussed. Ultimately, the need to develop bioremediation enzymes in bulk, using cheap technologies while optimising their activity, stability, and shelf life for effective soil decontamination is emphasized.
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The Concept Of Enzymology In Soil Pollutant Bioremediation

Enzymes are proteins that speed up biochemical reactions without being changed. To enhance the conversion of reactants to products, enzymes lower activation energy used during the process (Piotrowska-Długosz, 2017). Regions of enzymes involved in catalytic processes are known as active sites whose association with the rest of the protein occur through covalent or non-covalent bonding. An enzyme may have one or more essential catalytic groups or active sites. These are known as apoenzymes if they are made of protein or prosthetic group if they are nonproteins or holoenzyme if it is a combination of the two (Karigar & Rao, 2011). The nomenclature of enzymes is related to their catalytic group, their function and/or the reactions that they catalyse. Identification and classification of enzymes is dependent on their enzyme commission (EC) number, which is defined by the international union of biochemistry and molecular biology1 (Karigar & Rao, 2011). All enzymes are categorised in six groups: - synthetases also known as ligases, isomerases, lyases, hydrolases, transferases and oxidoreductases.

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