Theory and Practice of Signal Strength-Based Localization in Indoor Environments

Theory and Practice of Signal Strength-Based Localization in Indoor Environments

Eiman Elnahrawy (Rutgers University, USA) and Richard P. Martin (Rutgers University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-396-8.ch011

Abstract

This chapter discusses radio-based positioning. It surveys and compares several received signal strength localization approaches from two broad categories: point-based and area-based. It also explores their performance and means to improve it. It describes GRAIL - a sample positioning system. It finally concludes with a brief discussion of sensor applications that utilize location information.
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Localization Approaches

The numerous approaches to localization defy a simple taxonomy. However, there are only a handful of overall strategies and approaches. In all cases anchors or landmarks, i.e., sensor or gateway nodes with known locations are needed at some point in the process.

Aggregate approaches position sensors using a collection of measurements from a large number of nodes. In contrast, individual approaches use information between a single sensor and a set of landmarks.

Orthogonal to the number of sensors participating in the process is the algorithmic approach used. Lateration approaches use some function of distance between the sensors and the landmarks. In contrast, Scene matching approaches match sensor observations to known maps and do not require any concept of direct physical distance in the algorithm.

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