Think Positive, Focus on Positive: How to Develop Psychological Capital in Tourism Businesses

Think Positive, Focus on Positive: How to Develop Psychological Capital in Tourism Businesses

Eda Ozgul Katlav, Nilufer Sahin Percin
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1474-0.ch004
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The concept of psychological capital (PsyCap) has attracted a great deal of interest from both academics and practitioners and has been linked to employee attitudes, behavior, and performance at different levels of analysis. Since tourism enterprises are service-intensive enterprises, it is important for employees to recognize and develop their positive aspects. In this chapter, positive organizational behavior, psychological capital, dimensions, and studies on tourism enterprises are discussed. In addition, the importance of psychological capital in tourism sector is mentioned.
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Developments experienced in environmental factors in recent years have reshaped rivalry in the work place. The changes, which globalisation led to, concern tourism industry closely. Tourism businesses take part among the businesses that feel the obligation of rapid adaptation to the changing environmental conditions due to their features peculiar to tourism industry such as the flexibility of the demand, the production and consumption of the service presented taking place in the same time period, and the service not being stored. Businesses which take part in tourism industry taking part in the service industry have entered a fierce competition environment (Coşar, 2008). The importance of the human element has gradually increased in terms of businesses in the process when the changes much more increasing the competition in the work place occur. Because the human resourse has the knowledge, education and experience which can provide advantage over the rivals and they can be made widespread. Physical resources in the tourism businesses, as in the other businesses, decision making models in the administration, managerial procedures can not be very difficult to be imititated by rivals by way of comparison.

Many organisations in competition have been functioning with the same technological capacity recently. The products produced by using advanced technology are reproduced in a very short time and presented to consumers even at a cheaper cost by the rivals by using counter engineering methods(Luthans & Youssef, 2004, pp. 144–145). Therefore, businesses have given importance to the human resource, the only element, which can provide them with competition advantage. Because the human resourse ‘s being imitated by rivals becomes rather difficult. This competition has more importance in tourism industry where service quality and customer satisfaction depend upon the performance of the employees. It is required that the employee contentedness, satisfaction, motivation should be maintained and their performance be increased in order to gain the desired results from the emploees. Psychological Capital (PsyCap) has the characteristics which can enable this. In this chapter positive organisational behavior (POB) and PsyCap are first defined, PsyCap dimensions, antecedents and consequences are included and then the importance of PsyCap in tourism industry and the studies conducted on it are included.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Employee: One employed by another usually for wages or salary and in a position below the executive level.

Positive Organizational Behavior (POB): POB is defined as the study and application of positively-oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace.

Positive Emotions (PE): PE are defined as the emotions that people feel positive and include joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love.

Positive Psychology: Positive psychology is a science of positive aspects of human life, such as happiness, wellbeing, and flourishing.

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