Total Quality Management and Quality Engineering

Total Quality Management and Quality Engineering

Shubhajit Das (National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, India), Kakoli Roy (National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, India) and Tage Nampi (National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1831-1.ch019
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Total quality management (TQM) is a set of the systematic management approaches for the continuous improvement of quality standards of products, services, and business relations with employees and consumers. This chapter mainly focusses on the eight key principles of TQM, the involvement of workers, leadership, process approach, strategic approach, continuous improvement, together for a factual approach to decision-making and communication. This chapter also discusses a four-part management model that implements continuous quality improvements and process control in different stages of an organization based on the Deming cycle or the Shewhart cycle. Quality engineering encompasses a broad range of methodologies and tools, which include quality management systems, advanced product quality planning (APQP), tools like quality function development (QFD), failure modes, and effects analysis (FMEA), statistical process control (SPC), and are widely accepted methodologies used in industries.
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History And Background Of Tqm

History of TQM

In the 18th century, the quality did not exist. The development of quality started in the 20th century. Its significance has transformed and developed over time. During World War II, in the 1940s, quality became statistical. TQM was initially originated in the early 1950s in the USA. In the early 1930s, a former Bell telephone employee named Dr. Walter Shewhart who was also an American physicist and statistician is often talked about to as the “Father of the Quality Control.” He established the modern statistical approaches with the Shewhart Cycle of learning and Improvement Cycle. His work and methods were later developed by other statisticians like William Edwards Deming and Joseph Moses Juran. Shewhart, Deming, and Juran were referred to as the three authors of the quality improvement program. Deming in the late 1920s, who was an employee at Western Electric Company based in Chicago, found that the employees have low enthusiasm leading to inefficient productivity. Using Shewhart’s theory, Deming framed a management process that is statistically controlled and allows the managers to intervene when and how in an organization's process. The U.S Department sent Deming to Japan where he taught statistical analysis techniques and quality improvement. His methods were adopted and later developed by Japanese engineers. Juran taught the concepts of controlling quality and management practices. The main focus of the TQM is to provide continuous quality improvement of products, services, and business relations. It first originated in the manufacturing sector but later applied to all the organizations.

Background of TQM

Right from the times, when the quality gurus have given TQM a broader meaning, it has been adopted in many top organizations around the world. The Toyota in Japan and Maruti in India has implemented TQM at that time. Many organizations nowadays adopt TQM to develop and improve the objectives of quality. In businesses and engineering, product development started where various departments work independently. The U.S awards Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award while Japan awards Deming prize to their companies for quality excellence in management and implementation. TQM is a decision-making process. It is an outline of principles in a systematic method. It performs as a tool to determine and develop quality and efficiency. The principles of TQM include relationships between customer/supplier prevailing in both within the organization and between the organizations. The principles enable an organization to break any traditional obstructions and to recognize if the company implements TQM.

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