Tracking Legislative Developments in Relation to “Do Not Track” Initiatives

Tracking Legislative Developments in Relation to “Do Not Track” Initiatives

Brigette Garbin (University of Queensland, Australia), Kelly Staunton (University of Queensland, Australia) and Mark Burdon (University of Queensland, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4582-0.ch011
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Abstract

Online behavioural profiling has now become an industry that is worth billions of dollars throughout the globe. The actual practice of online tracking was once limited to individual Websites and individual cookies. However, the development of new technologies has enabled marketing corporations to track the Web browsing activities of individual users across the Internet. Consequently, it should be no surprise that legislative initiatives are afoot throughout the world including the United States (US), the European Union (EU), and Australia. These different jurisdictions have put forward different methods of regulating online behavioural profiling and Do Not Track initiatives. Accordingly, this chapter overviews legislative developments and puts forward a typology of different legislative initiatives regarding the regulation of online behavioral profiling and Do Not Track issues. Particular focus is given to the Australian situation and whether existing Australian privacy law is sufficient to protect the privacy interests of individuals against the widespread use of online behaviour profiling tools.
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How Online Behavioural Profiling Operates

Online behavioural profiling is “the practice of tracking an individual’s online activities in order to deliver advertising tailored to the individual’s interests” (Federal Trade Commission [FTC], 2009). The actual practice of tracking was once limited to the installation of traditional cookies that record the websites a user visits (Wall Street Journal, n.d.). However, marketing and advertising companies are now employing a range of new tools such as flash cookies, third-party cookies and beacons in order to track the online behaviour of individuals (Electronic Privacy Information Centre [EPIC], n.d.).Third party cookies are the primary mechanism used for online tracking. These cookies are operated by a “third party”, the advertising or marketing company, as opposed to the actual domain a web user is visiting, and place its cookies on the domain that a user is browsing. Generally speaking, third-party cookies will be placed by advertising network domains, allowing them to construct a “profile” of an online user based on their browsing activities that is subsequently used for the purpose of delivering targeted advertisements (Duhig, 2012). Online behavioural tracking has become a burgeoning industry precisely because of the potency of advertising that it provides for (Phillips, 2010). A user who chooses to remove cookies can still have their data accessed as a result of flash cookies, devices that re-install deleted cookies. Beacons are used by online tracking companies to track a user’s every movement on a website, including what is typed and where the user is moving the mouse. The data that people are accessing or browsing on a webpage can be collected in real-time, and then be aggregated with other data about a particular user, including their location, income, hobbies and so on.

The aggregation can be primarily conducted in two ways depending on what information is being collected by the relevant cookie. First, by aggregating data around the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the device that is being used to access the web page. In this situation, it may or may not be possible to identify and aggregate information to an individual as data is being aggregated to a device (e.g. a computer or smart phone) rather than a person. However, it is potentially a relatively simple task to ascertain an identity from an IP address.

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