Transportation of Chemical Cargoes by Tanker Ships

Transportation of Chemical Cargoes by Tanker Ships

Ozan Hikmet Arican (University of Kocaeli, Turkey), Ibrahim Dugenci (University of Kocaeli, Turkey), Gokhan Kara (Istanbul University Cerrahpaşa, Turkey) and Ali Umut Unal (University of Kocaeli, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1397-2.ch016

Abstract

Chemical and industrial chemical substances are used in every area of industry. Much of these chemicals are transported from one country to another by ships. Most of these ships are container ships and chemical tankers. Chemical tankers are included in international logistics because they carry large amounts of different cargoes. Moving more suitable and larger amounts of cargo from one port to another plays a role in the provision of trade. The transport of chemical loads generally takes place in 4 stages with different ship types. These stages are: tank preparation, loading, transportation, and discharging. This chapter explains these steps.
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Literature Review

Since the transportation of chemical cargoes creates more infrastructure, ships, rules and risks than the transportation of other cargoes, a lot of special studies have been done in the literature. Most of these studies emerge as studies involving the risk factor, unlike the ordinary transportation operation service given to any cargo. Some of these are examined for quantitative evaluation of precations on chemical tanker operations. Risk assessments were conducted with Analytic Hierarcy Process. Chemical Tanker operations have been evaluated in terms of accidents and their prevention (Arslan,2019).

In a study conducted by (Çelik,2010), it was investigated the development of the International Safety Management (ISM) code in accordance with the requirements of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001: 2007) regarding the operational restrictions on Chemical Tankers.

In another study, legal compliance processes are mentioned. In chemical tankers, information is given on the impact of issues related to the management of occupational health and safety requirements. In another study, the implementation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulate a strategy for safe transport of bulk liquid chemicals in chemical tankers has been examined (Arslan & Er, SWOT Analysis for Safer Carriage of Bulk Liquid Chemicals in Tankers, 2008).

A study that provides models for efficient transfer of bulk liquid cargoes has been studied. A system has been formulated by modeling the most appropriate sequences for the discharge of various types of liquid impurities (Cheng & Karimi, 2006).

In another study, the details of the static electrical hazard and the points to be considered in chemical cargoes are explained (Britton, 1999). It has been mentioned how to control static electricity. Measures to be taken in sampling and calculation of operations in chemical cargoes have also been mentioned. In addition, informed the flammable and explosion properties of the cargoes should be known.

In another study examined, it was conducted to evaluate human errors in chemical tanker operations. Analytic Hierarchy Process method is used to evaluate the human errors and the possibility of human error(Akyüz & Celik, 2016).

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