TVET as a Game Changer

TVET as a Game Changer

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9250-1.ch005


This chapter discusses the implications of results presented in Chapter 4. Possible explanations for the findings are provided in reference to how they converge or diverge from the existing literature. In Chapter 4, the effects of college resources and student engagement on student learning outcomes were investigated. By incorporating the college impact models, this chapter explores how college resources influence learning outcomes beyond what is already explained by aspects of the environment. Specifically, the chapter analyzed the direct and indirect effects of college resources and student engagement on students learning outcomes. In addition, this chapter examined the college environments and the influence it exerts on learning outcomes. The chapter is centered on the findings of demographic information as well as understanding group variances. The chapter winds up with a concrete discussion around the research questions and hypotheses developed in Chapter 4.
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Discussion On Respondents Demographic Details

Lecturers were asked to indicate their teaching experience; their response was presented in Table 1 in chapter 3. The results show that out of the 117 lecturers surveyed, 44 percent had a teaching experience of less than 5 years while only 11 percent had experience of above 20 years. It was eminent that many experienced lecturers quit their present jobs for greener pastures while the fewer left still hold the notion that; “teaching is a noble job that calls for sacrifice of one’s time”. However, this study found out that the remaining experienced work force were sufficient to induct new staff as well as occupy the fewer senior cadre offices. This was because most colleges applied the Max Webber’s bureaucratic structure in managing college affairs. Powers were vested on a few individuals in the high ranking positions. Any policy that affects students’ academics tricked right from the top (principal) to the bottom (Students).

Lecturers were asked to indicate their employer; there response was presented in Table 1 in chapter 3. The results show that out of the 117 lecturers surveyed, 62 percent were civil servants employed by the central government, and another 17 percent were employed by the Board of Management within the college while the remaining 21 percent were employed by private sector. This means that the government took a larger stake in governance of vocational colleges. Any policy formulated at the ministerial level had a direct impact on college education; for example, vision 2030 which aims at strengthening vocational colleges leading to students’ achievement and national development. Under the economic pillar, equipping the youth with relevant skills for employment was emphasized through the TVET education. This was a deliberate government drive to create youth employment. The increase in resources allocation for vocational colleges as well as the increase in the number of such colleges as found in the present study was a result of this government policy.

The demographic information about lecturer highest professional qualification to establish quality of teaching work force was received as indicated in Table 1 in chapter 3. The finding revealed that 10 percent of the lecturers had only a certificate. This group of lecturers got employment some few years after the country was declared independent from British colonial regime and continued to work awaiting their retirement. The largest number of lecturers (47%) had degrees while as few as 11 percent and 1 percent had master and doctoral degrees respectively. Many of these lecturers with master and doctoral degree normally seek jobs in the universities because at technical level such lecturers do not get competitive salary packages compared to their counterparts with same level of qualification in the universities. In addition, diploma and graduate lecturers were better fit in technical and vocational college education due to their vast hands on skills capable of handling sophisticated roles with relatively lower remuneration to their post graduates’ colleagues.

As illustrated in Table 1 in chapter 3, a large number of lectures surveyed (53%) attended between 1 and 3 in-service training, 25 percent attended between 4 and 6, 15 percent never attended such training since joining the college while 7 percent attended more than 7 in-service training. From a review of the questionnaire items it was realized that all lecturers who had never attended in-service training were still new in the teaching profession with experience of less than 5 years. In the same group of lecturers, (< 5-year experience) two of them suggested that;

The college should ensure there are enough teachers and staff development should be continuous, as technology keeps on changing from time to time” and the other lecturer said; “all teachers should undergo flexible skills development training in order to make their teaching more competent and blended in nature.

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