Typology of Services

Typology of Services

Adamantios Koumpis (ALTEC Information & Communication Systems S.A., Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-683-9.ch003
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Abstract

Classes and taxonomies of services – how can they be categorized, with respect to different parameters, factors, dimensions. Why some of them matter and some other don’t? How can they be organized to serve specific purposes, etc. The major part of the chapter is justly devoted to the presentation of the Service Analysis Model (SAM). With its four constituent building blocks, SAM provides an insight to the analysis of services and is followed by a section devoted to the synthesis of service and the composition of new ones. The chapter closes with the presentation of a real test case implemented for a manufacturing company to improve their service supply chain.
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The Service Analysis Model (Sam)

This model is critical for the market application of services within real world environments and demanding contexts of use. While several models are generic and support for the application of services in a given context only, the Service Analysis Model is providing the expressive power and means for applying in the given market context.

It builds on four building blocks (see Figure 3), which directly relate with the wider notion and semantic attributes of a service. More specifically, these are:

Figure 3.

The four building blocks of the Service Analysis Model (SAM)

Building Block 1: Service Environment

The aim of this first building block of the Service Analysis Model concerns environmental (external) analysis. This aims to facilitate transparency about the specific chances and risks of a particular product’s market or any other context that is the subject of a particular service analysis session.

However, environment as such implies also further aspects related e.g. to science, technology and society as well as the relative positioning of the particular company to each of these. This implies also the need for identification, analysis, and assessment of relevant parameters. Such an analysis can be reactive (e.g. after a product has been launched in the market, after a product prototype has been handed to the Marketing people, after …) or proactive (before a product has been launched in the market, before a product prototype has been handed to the Marketing people, before …).

Forecasting of future developments regarding a particular product and its environment may only be based on historical data and is generally regarded as risky because of dynamics in the environment. Trends and their analysis must therefore form an integral part of the environmental analysis. Based on the results of the analysis, scenarios for future development can be developed. The results of the environmental analysis are used for the strategic product lifecycle management process.

The methodology to be devised has to describe the procedure of how to carry out an environmental analysis according to the specific scope and needs of a particular company and product combination1.

I provide in Table 1 some more items that would be useful to form the basis of the space of semantics for this first building block of SAM.

Table 1.
Requirement summary for the analysis of environmental aspects of a particular situation
Items and parametersMarket
Suppliers (number, USPs, costs, price, turnover, stability, etc.)
Products and services (USPs, price, etc.)
Customers (number, groups, importance, demands, etc.)
Competitors (number, market share, target markets, strategy, etc.)
Markets (segments, strengths, etc.)
Technology (innovation steps, functionalities, costs, etc.)
e.t.c.
Politics
Current and planned international (e.g. European Union), national (country) and regional (federals state) legislations
Regulatory framework (product sector tariffing or protection aspects, e.t.c.)
e.t.c.
Culture
National cultural specifics
Individual histories
Market ethics, practices and customs (if possible with a quantification and linkage of them to the product under consideration)
e.t.c.
Extended Enterprise partners and Value Chain member
Profiles
Assessment of positive intakes and spillover effects
e.t.c.
Analysis methods and instrumentsSegmentation, clustering, portfolios
Benchmarking
Chance/risk, SWOT, potential, trend, scenario
Road mapping (technology, products)
e.t.c.
ApproachTop-down: processing of existing and new qualitative and quantitative data for product analysis and planning purposes
Bottom-up: processing of existing mainly quantitative data for product analysis purposes
Critical points and risksInformation needed for strategic decisions is mostly not available in internal operative systems
Environmental dynamics and resulting unpredictability
Bad modelling, which relates either to selection of an inappropriate modelling framework (i.e. one that does not fit to the purposes of a particular case) or population of an overall appropriate modelling framework with inappropriate or inconsistent information entities

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