Uncertainties in Safety and Security: Uncertainties in Critical Infrastructure Protection and Human Factors

Uncertainties in Safety and Security: Uncertainties in Critical Infrastructure Protection and Human Factors

Tünde Anna Kovács (Donát Bánki Faculty of Mechanical and Safety Engineering, Óbuda University, Hungary) and Zoltán Nyikes (Donát Bánki Faculty of Mechanical and Safety Engineering, Óbuda University, Hungary)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 30
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3059-7.ch014

Abstract

In today's world, critical infrastructure encompasses facilities vital to the economy, politics, and population. Their maintenance and safe operation can ensure the supply for the population. These facilities are at risk due to climate change, natural disasters, terror attacks, or wars which are increasingly affecting countries around the world. In addition, the human factor can also cause uncertainty and damages. The function of the world depends on human activities. In this chapter the uncertainties in safety and security are introduced. Security is the most important part as it is the critical infrastructure protection and human safety . The important pillars of safety and security and these uncertainties are introduced in this chapter.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

In the world, the governs need to assure all goods what peoples needs for the citizens. The needs can interpret on the base of the pyramid of Maslow’s. Maslow's pyramid structure contains human needs at different levels (Szakali & Szűcs, 2017). Security and safety are the basic needs of this structure. The citizen’s life quality and simultaneously the economy increasing of the countries depends strongly on security and safety. Even that the human activity is not directly part of the critical infrastructures, the infrastructures are not independent of the personal activities (Szakali & Szűcs, 2018). Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is a strategic task of the governs. The strategic task also to assure the security and safety of human operators of the infrastructures. The goal of this chapter to introduce the human factors and it's a risk in Critical Infrastructure operations. Critical Infrastructure us the most important and most sensible for the citizens of the world because the Critical Infrastructure segments include all necessary parts of life. This is the reason why it needs to understand human factors and risk analyses methods. The critical infrastructure protection uncertainties are the most important in the life of the world peoples. In this chapter, authors want to introduce some most important parts of the uncertainties and the importance of human factors because the human errors cause and caused high-level damages. In this chapter, it can not answer and introduce treatment for all events but discover some possibilities of the risk identification, analysis and the risk level decreasing the view of the human factors.

Critical Infrastructures Protection

Critical infrastructure (CI) is assigned in the literature by different definitions. It can define as those assets and systems, that are essential for the maintenance of the social functions, health, safety, security, and economics or social well-being of people (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004). This definition covers the key government services including energy, utilities, emergency services, banking and finance, transport, health, food supply and communication systems (Brunner & Suter, 2008). They are vulnerable from the number of factors including from the physical attacks to natural disasters, and human error such as poor design or operator error (Moteff, 2014). During recent decades, the urbanization and also climate change greatly increased natural hazards damages. (Freeman, 2003; Leaning, 2013).

The CI sectors defined separately but it's not independent, typically are there a special relationship between the CI elements. This chapter tries to introduce a general overview of understanding potential uncertainties in the selection of CIP policy and some shows on useful uncertainty analysis approaches during the decision-making process. Figure 1 shows a basic critical infrastructure protection process.

Figure 1.

Process of critical infrastructure protection (Moshadeghi, 2017)

978-1-7998-3059-7.ch014.f01

Key Terms in this Chapter

Human Factor: The human factors or ergonomics mean all of the human capabilities, limits and human performance even that these parameters are psychological or physical of human what is need respect during the design engineering.

Critical Infrastructure: (CI) is assigned in the literature by different definitions. It can define as those assets and systems, that are essential for the maintenance of the social functions, health, safety, security, and economics or social well-being of people.

Risk Analysis: Risk analysis is the process is identifying and analysing the potential issues that could negatively impact critical infrastructure.

Human Error: Human error is a term describing a planned sequence of mental or physical actions that fail to achieve the intended objective, and that this failure cannot be attributed to chance.

Uncertainty: is commonly considered as any departure from the unachievable ideal of complete determinism.

Environmental Factors: Physical environmental factors such as noise, vibration, lighting, the climate can affect people’s safety, health and comfort.

Physical Factors: Are the human body capabilities and limits during operations in static posture or motion.

Resilience: Resilience is a force against the negative risk impact the critical infrastructure.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset