Understanding Flipped Instructions and How They Work In the Real World

Understanding Flipped Instructions and How They Work In the Real World

Shani Salifu (Concord University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9680-8.ch004
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From Colorado's Pike's Peak into a number of schools, the popularity of flipped classes is on the rise. Based on a two-tier approach to teaching and learning, students review instructor-recommended media or other content in the first tier before face-to-face class meetings, while the second tier has face-to-face classes repurposed to for interactive or hands-on learning experiences. Through this arrangement, hitherto face-to-face class meetings become avenues for content-knowledge application, or concept mastery. Given that, flipped classes have attracted both excitement and skepticisms, this chapter attempts put things into perspective by streamlining the components, implementation, and the evidence of efficacy of flipped classes. The chapter examines concerns that flipped classes likely burden instructors and students especially those in rural and urban areas who may lack the resources needed to benefit from this strategy. The chapter further prescribes resources and procedures that could be useful to individuals interested in flipped classrooms.
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What Is A Flipped Classroom?

Stemming from the above, Hawks (2014) assumes a broader outlook on flipped class sessions. She defines the concept as a pedagogical model the first part of which primarily relies on short asynchronous video lectures, reading assignments, practice problems, and other instructor recommended digital technology-based resources to engage students outside of the classroom. In Hawks’ (2014) view, the second part of the concept relies on the use of active, interactive, group-based, and other problem-solving activities in classrooms in place of traditional direct lectures. According to her, the in-class session can help instructors to identify respective knowledge gaps in students that may require their attention. Similarly, Forsey, Low and Glance (2013) perceive that, out of class students’ resources in flipped classes should consist of both short video-lectures and readings as a way of preparing for future face-to-face meetings in the forms of workshops, and other active engagements where students can get assistance to practically apply knowledge from prescribed short videos or other relevant readings. Forsey, Low and Glance (2013) aver that, applying the knowledge from the pre-recorded videos may also take the form of symposia, where students make presentations on their learned experiences from the prescribed videos and readings.

In contrast with the above, Bishop and Verleger (2013) appear to be much more radical in their view of what should constitute flipped classrooms. They maintain that, video lectures should be at the center of all flipped instructions. They refuse to recognize as flipped instructions, instances that rely on other prescriptions such as reading assignments and other non-video contents prescribed for students in preparations for in-class discussions and other activities. They posit that, flipped instructions should only have two key components namely: interactive group learning activities that take place in classrooms during scheduled class sessions and direct computer-based individual instructions through which video lectures are accessible to students outside of regular class hours. They consider this teaching and learning arrangement as being unique. This conclusion is based their belief that the approach enables instructors to deploy a combination of learning theories that would hitherto have been considered incompatible with each other in a single instructional session. Bishop and Verleger (2013) describe this combination as utilizing active and problem-based learning activities that draw heavily from the constructivist approach on one hand, and the traditional instructional lecture approach that draws largely upon behaviorist learning principles on the other.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Screen-Cast: A digital video recording or capturing of the screen of a computer or other digital devices. In relation to flipped classes, this action would usually include an audio narration that explains the screen capture.

Video Lectures: Video recordings of class lectures or presentations that can be made available to learners after the event.

Content Mastery: This refers to instances where learners can demonstrate the mastery of key units of a learned content as they prepare for application or demonstration.

Teaching and Learning Approach: A pedagogical strategy used to transmit knowledge to learners.

Hands-on Experience: The understanding or expertise acquired from actually doing something instead of just watching, listening, or passively reading about it.

Podcast: A digital audio recording of a lecture or a program that is usually made available for download and, or for the consumption of users over the Internet through computers, MP3 players, and other digital devices.

Flipped Instruction: This is another term for a flipped classroom.

Flipped Classroom: The typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed in this pedagogical approach with teaching and learning taking place at home and face-to-face class meetings repurposed for what used to be homework.

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