United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates

Özlem Durgun (İstanbul University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2939-2.ch013


UAE has been founded by uniting of seven emirates that declare independence at 1971. The country has made significant progress in last 45 years related to World Bank. While the poverty has been seen in the emirates during its establishment, they have achieved to the level of developed countries today. The economy of the country depends on production of oil and natural gas resources. The globalization process has affected to commercial and economic policies of the country. Thus, the country is experiencing a rapid transformation. An excessive labor demand has arisen after the increase on the studies about infrastructure-superstructure and foreign capital inflow had been combined. The need for professional labor force will also increase as the goals of the government about creating a knowledge-based and creative economy proceed. UAE has worked to become one of the leader countries in the region related to economic and social issues. Discovery of the petroleum 30 years ago has transformed the poor region to a country which has numerous modern structures.
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Population And Demographic Structure

The location of the United Arab Emirates is placed in the middle of Arabian Gulf. Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sultanate of Oman are its neighbors. The region has been stayed under the auspices of the Ottoman Empire for many years. Then, it stayed under the auspices of Britain as State of Tribes. The governance which is divided to seven emirates has decided to unite and establish the UAE after the British have left the Persian Gulf at 1971 and separated off from Britain. Its capital is Abu Dhabi. Although the official language is Arabic, English is commonly used in the country. Additionally, Hindi and Urdu languages are generally spoken due to the high number of the immigrants from Pakistan and India.

United Arab Emirates is federation which has small area and consists of seven emirates. It is a small country on account of surface area. The area is only 83,600 km2. The biggest cities are Dubai with population of 1,770,533, Abu Dhabi with 896,751 citizens and Sharjah with 845,617 citizens. The country has %85.3 of urbanization ratio by the year 2014.

The population has been increased from 1,800,000 to 9 million between the years 1990s and 2014. If the population ratio of native population which is equal to 16 percent is considered the effect of the immigrants which has the population ratio of 83.8 percent is significant on the fast population growth. United Arab Emirates is the most popular county for immigration by allowing immigrants as one of the five of its population every year. The countries that give the most immigrants to UAE are India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Furthermore, immigrants are allowing from China, Philippines, Thailand, Iranian, Korea and Afghanistan. It is estimated that the native population ratio will be decreased to %10s by the year 2020.

The distribution of the population by emirates is given as Abu Dhabi with %39, Dubai with %29, Sharjah with %18 and another emirates with %14. Indians have the first place on the distribution of the foreigner population by having 29 percent population ratio. Pakistanis are the most crowded immigrant population after the Indians with a ratio of 20 percent. Other immigrant groups consist of Bangladeshis with %13, Philippines with %10, other Arabians (%12), Iranians (%2) and other countries with %4. The European population is increasing gradually and the population density is enhancing especially in the cities such as Dubai. While the number of person per km2 is 36 in the year of 2000, it has reached the 108 at 2014. Today, 30 percent of the city population lives in the biggest city (World Bank, 2015).

In United Arab Emirates, there is an imbalance on the ratio of gender distribution. The difference between the numbers of men and women is the biggest after the Qatar. There are 203.6 men for every 100 women in the country. On the distribution of the gender, men have a part of %69 and women have only %31. The number of men is two times more than the number of women. The main reason for this major difference is the immigration. The men who came as immigrants generally do not bring their families with them. In addition, the boys are preferred instead of the girls on the birth in the region.

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