Urban Safety and Security in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria: CCTV Inclusive Design for Sustainable Urban Development

Urban Safety and Security in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria: CCTV Inclusive Design for Sustainable Urban Development

Ademola A. Farinmade (University of Lagos, Nigeria), Oluwole A. Soyinka (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China) and Kin Wai Michael Siu (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China & Wuhan University of Technology, China)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4165-3.ch011
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Urban insecurity, loss of life and property are global challenges that affect the living conditions and the geomorphology of urban centers. This study assesses the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) inclusive design to promote urban safety and security for sustainable urban development. The objectives are to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of the residents, examine the existing security structure, assess the level of CCTV awareness, and assess its current uses. Mixed method of data collection and analysis were adopted. The findings reveal that both the residential houses and banks have suffered adverse security issues and anti-social menace. CCTV inclusive design is described important for preventing crime in banks, while the same cannot be categorically stated in residential houses. Recommendations for CCTV inclusive design strategies, safety, and security strategies with government policies, public and private participation of stakeholders in urban planning design were proposed for the study area.
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The challenge of urban safety and security is a global challenge with severe physical planning effect on global space (Ditton, 2000). Every nation of the world (developed and developing) are suffering from one crime effect or the other but it is more severe in developing countries. Crime rate in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria in relation to the global insecurity has risen to the level of the general outcry of all stakeholders for urgent solutions (Salau & Lawanson, 2010). The issue of cyber crime, economic fraud, theft, and robbery are increasing by the day with deteriorated urban areas (Cozens, Saville, & Hillier, 2005; Kang, Lee, Kim, & Hur, 2011). Several government security policies such as the National Defense Policy 2006 and the ECOWAS Conflict Prevention Framework and Human Right Act adopted to protect lives and properties of Lagos residents are inadequate of achieving the desired results (Akiyode, 2010). Human abduction, armed robbery, terrorism, bomb attacks and lots more are the common urban security and safety challenges in the country. Seeking a solution to these challenges has become the general concern of every citizen without significant improvement, hence the need for CCTV is identified necessary to promote safety and security.

Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) is a global device for promoting safety and security through behavior control management among other means in a geographical area. It is a security and safety management device that provides footage of activities at the real time. It is a system that has been used all over the world with different views from different researchers (Kang et al., 2011). It is an instrument that has video footage recording devices for controlling and guiding behaviors and resolving several crime issues globally. Its application in developed countries reflects that it has contributed to the reduction of crime rate through behavior control, crime prevention, and the public opinion about it is positive towards safety management despite its opposition (Norris, McCahill, & Wood, 2002). Norris et al. (2002) state that the study of CCTV usage in US business area and environs show that 75% of the business adopt it for safety and security prevention reasons.

In contrast to the television broadcast surveillance system, the CCTV are closed circuit device created for different required needs (Koskela, 2000). Its significance towards safety and security with its capacity to record real-time observation for guiding human behavior, detect crime and serves as testimonials on crime related issues. This essential quality of CCTV makes it relevant for safety and security in crime prone areas such as airports, banks, ATM locations, residential areas, Nightclubs and communal buildings among others (Deisman, 2003). Its not restricted to watching crime prone areas alone, but they are also installed in different areas such as parking lots, public transports, shopping malls, public and private companies like banks, production companies, administrative buildings, government parastatals, public and private schools; cinemas, eateries and restaurants among others. This uses is based on individual needs with the aim to record an observed process to ensure adequate use for safety of lives and property and any other relevant uses (Farrall, 2001; Gill & Spriggs, 2005; Nicholson, Webber, Dyer, Patel, & Janicke, 2012).

CCTV is not new in Nigeria, yet its application to manage behavior, prevent, detect or reduce crime in residential houses and banks has not been established to promote safety and security in urban planning design and practices (Salau & Lawanson, 2010). Lekki peninsular, Lagos metropolis, Nigeria, was selected as the research area, considering the security challenge in this area and the current global insecurity challenges with the need to promote safety and security strategies for sustainable urban development. This study, therefore, assesses the effective use of CCTV in respect to crime detection, reduction, prevention to promote security in residential houses and banks in Lekki peninsular of Lagos metropolis for sustainable secured urban development.

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