Urban Topology of Car-Free Cities

Urban Topology of Car-Free Cities

Sarmada Madhulika Kone (Sri Venkateshwara College of Architecture, Hyderabad, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3507-3.ch008

Abstract

New technological and automobile discoveries of the 1900s have transformed man's life. Modernism hasn't just brought institutional and sociological evolution in human society but has also brought cultural change. Industrialization and the automobile revolution have made man dependent on machines, and the influence is reflected in his ecosystem. Cities grew to accommodate automobiles, and today, car dominance is affecting the urban environment in terms of health and social interaction in urban open spaces. The car-free city is a new concept that every city has to adopt for a better tomorrow. The study focuses on different topological parameters of car-free cities and identifies different parameters to be considered while developing a conceptual framework towards a car-free urban environment.
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Evolution Of Urban Planning Models

Jean-Paul Rodrigue, in his book “The geography of transport systems”, explains the historical evolution of transportation in five phases. Transportation in the Pre-Industrial era, pre-1800, can be characterized as limited transport technology with non-mechanized modes of transportation, animal labor, and limited long-distance trade. In the second phase, from 1800 to 1870, the Industrial Revolution started the mechanization of transportation with a steam engine and railways. The emergence of modern transport systems from 1870 to 1920 noted the growth in international transportation and the dominance of rail transport. Introduction to tramways in urban areas and bicycles provided cheap mobility for masses. Fordist era from 1920 to 1970, the era knows for the internal combustion engine and mass production system, which have changed the mobility habits of human beings. The last phase of evolution in transportation as per Jean-Paul Rodrigue is the post-Fordist era after 1970, where information technologies are merged with transportation systems, and IT has become a tool to manage transportation systems. With reference to the evolution of transportation by Jean-Paul Rodrigue, urban planning concepts are compared in terms of the communication system, and mobility patterns worked out. Urban models explaining different concepts of a settlement, the transition in these models along the timeline are correlated with the evolution of transportation (Jean-Paul Rodrigue, 2013).

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