Use of the Concern-Task-Interaction-Outcome (CTIO) Cycle for Virtual Teamwork

Use of the Concern-Task-Interaction-Outcome (CTIO) Cycle for Virtual Teamwork

Suryadeo Vinay Kissoon (RMIT University, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2618-8.ch015
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This chapter introduces the CTIO (Concern-Task-Interaction-Outcome) Cycle as a means of studying team member interaction using face-to-face and virtual interaction media in retail banking. The type of interaction is discussed in terms of different conceptual cycles having a linkage in the framing of the CTIO Cycle. In the past, routine teamwork using face-to-face communication was important. Today, with emerging technologies for retail banking organizations, teamwork through virtual communication has been gaining importance for increased productivity. This chapter addresses different problem-solving cycles, each of which relates to the mode of interaction medium (whether face-to-face or virtual) used by team members, facilitators, or managers to resolve problems in the workplace. The chapter focuses on understanding the relationship between face-to-face and virtual interaction variables. This is important to researchers in identifying retail banking trends using hybrid teams and virtual group networks with routine teamwork. Using virtual over face-to-face interactions in the different data life cycles linkages are gaining importance from the perspectives of data and information quality. This can be attributed to the increased use of technologies and virtual network features. Current trends are leading to the triangulation of continuous improvement, routine teamwork, and virtual teamwork in support of retail banking organizations achieving productive performance.
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Continuous Improvement Teamwork (Cit) Model

The Continuous Improvement Teamwork (CIT) Model, demonstrated by stages in the CTIO cycle (shown in Figure 1), is a virtual teamwork approach. The circle in Figure 1 represents the continuous working towards resolution of a concern through face-to-face interaction or virtual interaction by team members. This approach is aligned with common organizational objectives of effective communication using emerging technologies (Kissoon, 2008a). The CIT Model is illustrative of an evolving participative, virtual approach to teamwork currently used by a major Australian banking organization with about 30,000 employees including its international branches. The company's objective for using the CIT Model is to achieve quality performance for its products and services.

Figure 1.

The CIT model realized through the CTIO cycle (Kissoon, 2007)


The CIT Model is comprised of the following phases:

  • Concern (Issue): A team member, or team members, identifies an issue related to organizational performance.

  • Task (Action): The issue identified needs to be addressed as soon as possible through tasks by team members, facilitators, or managers working for the respective organization or as an external consultant.

  • Interaction (Involvement and Connection): The various tasks are done through face-to-face interactions and/or virtual interactions through communication media between team members.

  • Outcome (Result): The CIT is a continuous process in achieving successfully and productive outcomes for the benefit of the firm, team and stakeholders.

The CIT Model is part of the CTIO Cycle. The CIT Model is a classificatory framework (Kissoon, 2008a), comprised of the mapping of three knowledge domains: continuous improvement, teamwork, and e-teamwork leading to the emergence of the Continuous Improvement Teamworking (CTIO) model. The CTIO Cycle is framed from other conceptual data life cycles (such as PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) Cycle, DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) Cycle, Data Evolution Life Cycle, NEAT Methodology Data Life Cycle, and Information System Life Cycle). These process improvement approaches will be later explained.

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