Use of Laser Scanner for Digital Surveying of the Sarnicli Inn and the Byzantine Cistern Underneath

Use of Laser Scanner for Digital Surveying of the Sarnicli Inn and the Byzantine Cistern Underneath

Gülhan Benli (Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey) and Eylem Görmüş Ekizce (Istanbul Technique University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0675-1.ch008
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Measurement methods including traditional measurement methods, topographic and photogrammetric measurement methods, measurements via laser scanning devices and aerial photogrammetric measurement methods obtained using model airplane or model helicopters are used in documentation of the cultural heritage and protected areas in our country. Although data obtained by Aerial Lidar technology accepted as advanced technology over the past decade, enables faster data comparing to others as data obtained by terrestrial laser scanners provide millimetre level accuracy close-range scanning methods are preferred in architectural facades scanning during the process of surveying of a single building. Inclusion process of a Byzantine cistern in Istanbul, Turkey, which was undiscovered for centuries, in our cultural heritage as well as surveying stages of the cistern along with the inn structure built over, using 3D scanning technology shall be described within this study.
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Following the discovery and diffusion of photography technique around the world, trials related to photogrammetry technique to be used in the architecture, which were conducted in 1858 by Albrecht Meydenbauer, a German engineer, could be considered as the beginning of a new period in this field (Albertz, 2001). It is seen that Meydenbauer is the person who also used the photogrammetry term for first time and established the first institute in this field (Royal Prussian Photogrammetric Institute) (Burtch, 2006).

The introduction of photogrammetry with computer technologies occurred in the middle of the 20th century. Howard Aiken, an American physicist and a pioneer in computing, developed the first functional computer in collaboration with IBM in the early 1940s, and in the following years Photogrammetry, Plane Table Photogrammetry, Analogue Photogrammetry and Analytical Photogrammetry stages have occurred (Burtch, 2006). Idea of converting the photographic data algorithmically through computers came up for the first time during this period (Burtch, 2006). This conversion is used to transfer the coordinate images to the map quantitatively. However, usage of computers as a tool of the photogrammetry within this period was not for visual context, but rather for calculations.

In conjunction with these developments, it is possible to talk about the digital photogrammetry by using the photogrammetric techniques along with computer technology. Convert to digital from analog in many areas speeded up with the development of personal computers in the mid of 1980s.

Efficient usage and implementation of different medias and environments have been required in documentation of cultural heritage due to changing paradigm with the introduction of computer technologies in architecture for the last 20 years. Specific historical areas in where the documentation methods such as laser scanning are used or building surveys specialised in terms of architecture are featured prominently in the studies conducted in this area in literature.

In particular, being in different sizes and dimensions along with various architectural features of the historical buildings or cultural and natural heritage zones to be protected that involved in the architectural discipline and the need of various scales and details for the work to be carried out require the use of advanced documentation techniques and technologies.

Use of laser scanning technologies in documentation of protected areas, which were initially very expensive, but getting cheaper with widespread usage has gained tremendous speed for the last 10 years in our country. Especially providing highly precise and 3D data acquisition through terrestrial laser scanning technologies made it possible to achieve integrated digital documentation either in the protected areas or single buildings with cultural heritage characteristics (Abmayr et al., 2005).

Providing fast and accurate survey of a specific architectural structure has led to increase the interest in the terrestrial laser scanning devices of architects and restorers working in the field. Quick analyses of the details related to historical building affect quick-evaluation and decision-making processes positively. Acceleration of decision-making process on repair and restoration of historical building makes a contribution to bring the building into the life quickly as well as re-use and revitalization of the building.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Laser Scanner: An equipment providing detailed and highly accurate 3D data for surveying tasks. Also these rapid and efficient data can be used in surveying, city modelling in many different areas in architecture, archaeology, civil engineering.

White and Black Target (Creation of a Coordinate Network): A coordinate network are created in the region by sticking half white and half black targets to the facades of buildings at an approximate distance of five meters. The coordinate data received from the team consisting of the map engineer and technicians via Total Station or GPS are integrated with the point cloud data at the office.

Inn: Usually with large courtyards with ample supplies of water for both drinking and other uses. The inns built in cities were provided not only food and lodging, but also engaged in manufacturing for the sales shops in grand bazaar. But the inns called caravanserais were built between towns if the distance between them was too far for one day's travel and also provided accommodation for people and served as a resting place both themselves and their animals.

Point cloud: Created by 3D scanners and also is a set of data points in three-dimensional coordinate system which define by X , Y , and Z coordinates.

Byzantine Cisterns: Ancient underground buildings that used to hold a reserve of water for the people. Cisterns are in the same line as aqueducts. There are hundreds of ancient cisterns hidden underneath the streets and houses of Istanbul.

Courtyard of the Inn: Always a main feature of gathering merchants, traders, travelers. This large open central place of the inn surrounded by cellular rooms.

Renewal Area: To protect the traditional cultural identity of the district in some protected areas of Istanbul and bring it in line with contemporary living conditions, the principles of adaptive re-use need to be reformulated while ensuring the sustainability of life in the local urban pattern and also these selected areas are called as renewal areas.

Grand Bazaar: One of the largest and oldest covered bazaar in the World having 61 covered streets and over 3000 shops. The construction of the covered bazaar’s core and also commercial center of Istanbul started in nearly 1455 and lasted until 1880’s.

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