On the Use of Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques for Channel Assignments in Cognitive Radio Networks

On the Use of Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques for Channel Assignments in Cognitive Radio Networks

Hisham M. Abdelsalam (Cairo University, Egypt), Haitham S. Hamza (Cairo University, Egypt), Abdoulraham M. Al-Shaar (Cairo University, Egypt) and Abdelbaset S. Hamza (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-1830-5.ch012
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Abstract

Efficient utilization of open spectrum in cognitive radio networks requires appropriate allocation of idle spectrum frequency bands (not used by licensed users) among coexisting cognitive radios (secondary users) while minimizing interference among all users. This problem is referred to as the spectrum allocation or the channel assignment problem in cognitive radio networks, and is shown to be NP-hard. Accordingly, different optimization techniques based on evolutionary algorithms were needed in order to solve the channel assignment problem. This chapter investigates the use of particular swarm optimization (PSO) techniques to solve the channel assignment problem in cognitive radio networks. In particular, the authors study the definitiveness of using the native PSO algorithm and the Improved Binary PSO (IBPSO) algorithm to solve the assignment problem. In addition, the performance of these algorithms is compared to that of a fine-tuned genetic algorithm (GA) for this particular problem. Three utilization functions, namely, Mean-Reward, Max-Min-Reward, and Max-Proportional-Fair, are used to evaluate the effectiveness of three optimization algorithms. Extensive simulation results show that PSO and IBPSO algorithms outperform that fine-tuned GA. More interestingly, the native PSO algorithm outperforms both the GA and the IBPSO algorithms in terms of solution speed and quality.
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System Model And Problem Statement

To better understand the problem addressed in this paper, we consider the first commercial application of CR in TV white space (interleaved spectrum).

Figure 1 shows a sample setup for a cognitive radio network. A typical cognitive network consists of a set of primary users X each is assigned a channel selected from a pool of M orthogonal, non-overlapping spectrum bands that differ in bandwidth and transmission range. Each channel of them is associated with a protection area with protection radius dP (x,m). However, it is assumed here that dP (x,m) is the same for all channels for simplicity in analysis. There are N coexisting secondary users that are planned to utilize these idle channels occupied by primary users in order to provide their services. A secondary can be a wireless access point (or transmission link). It is assumed that each secondary user can utilize multiple channels at one time, but limited to the radio interface constraint.

Figure 1.

Structure of a simple cognitive radio network

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