Use Value

Use Value

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0240-3.ch008
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Abstract

Use value can be described as a created value as leaders learn to create more value through effective use of employee skills and abilities within the workplace (Wenstop & Myrmel, 2006). Use value relates to the quality factor in a worker’s productivity. Use value requires integrity and a relationship of mutual respect between the organization and the employee. With regards to technology use, organizations seek alternative uses for these assets. Organizations must consider the multidimensionality of the person prior to hiring and plan to make adjustments as needed. Sometimes organizational leaders do not want to move employees to areas that they may be more effective because of political ties and power struggles (Pfeffer, 1992). Organizational needs must trump individual or group struggles. The purpose of this chapter is to: (1) introduce the concept of use value; (2) analyze and compare examples technology use value including the idea that it is often known before purchasing ?how a piece of equipment is ?to be used, process control, and strategic planning with examples of people use value including selection strategy, person-job fit, and job analysis.
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Introduction

Use value can be described as a created value as leaders learn to create more value through effective use of employee skills and abilities within the workplace (Wenstop & Myrmel, 2006). Use value relates to the quality factor in a worker’s productivity. Drucker (1999) suggests that organizations already know how to define the task of the knowledge worker but does not define it because it requires controversy and dissent. Change from the norm to the uncomfortable demands a leap of faith on the part of the organizations’ leaders and the employees who follow their lead. Organizations must be willing to define the task if they would like to actually extract value from the activity through the actions of the employee. Drucker (1999) also suggests that the only person who accurately knows the answer to the question “What is the task?” is the worker himself. Trusting the worker to answer this question so that it benefits the organization is essential. The competitiveness of organizations such as Apple is predicated on the efforts of Steve Jobs. Jobs’ knowledge has been invaluable to Apple’s success. Whenever there is any doubt about his ability to perform, Apple’s stock price depreciates in the marketplace. Use value requires integrity and a relationship of mutual respect between the organization and the employee.

With regards to technology use, organizations seek alternative uses for these assets. According to Hambrick and MacMillan (1984)

it is important to ask if there are alternative uses for assets within the firm. That is, can the asset be put to another use if demand for specific product does not materialize as planned? Or can the assets be moved to another part of the operations? (p.70)

These questions are also applicable for people. Thus, organizations must consider the multidimensionality of the person prior to hiring and plan to make adjustments as needed. HR managers and corporate leaders should be open to the use of iteration (Whitman, 2010) with regards to people. Managers take for granted that employees will be able to operate new technology. These leaders do not ask for or expect perfect technology, but they infer performance perfection from employees. Sometimes organizational leaders do not want to move employees to areas where they may be more effective because of political ties and power struggles (Pfeffer, 1992). Organizational needs must trump individual or group struggles.

This chapter (1) introduces the concept of use value; and (2) analyzes and compares technology use value including the idea of upfront knowledge of ‎how a piece of equipment is ‎to be used before purchase, process control, and strategic planning against people use value including selection strategy, person-job fit, and job analysis.

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Background

Marx (1906) explained in his labor theory of value that the “utility of a thing makes it a use-value” (p.13).

This author questions whether something has to be a thing or inanimate object to have use value. This may be a reason why slave owners could consider slaves to be property and not people. People have utility although it has not been recognized from this perspective. Locke (1691, as cited by Marx, 1906) noted that “the natural worth of anything consists in its fitness to supply the necessities, or serve the conveniences of human life” (p.28). Again, Locke was referring to inanimate objects and not his fellow human beings who were supplying the necessities and service. Both Marx and Locke are referring to when and how something is used to determine its value. There has been extensive debate regarding the economic implications of what Marx (1906) meant when he termed use-value (Böhm-Bawerk, Hilferding, & Sweezy 1984; Clay, 2006; Fromm, 1989; Park, 2006; Wilson, 2004). The term use value in this model and book simply informs the reader that people and technology each have use value. The use value of people and technology must be effectively managed so that the use value provides competitive advantage for the organization.. In most instances people and technology each enhances the value of the other. One example is that “Information technology now enables knowledge and expertise to become drivers of value creation and organizational effectiveness” (Venkatraman and Henderson, 1998, p.34). Böhm-Bawerk’s (1984) strategy regarding the equivalence between labor and use-value is more applicable to this concept (Böhm-Bawerk, Hilferding, & Sweezy 1984; Clay, 2006; Park, 2006).

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