User Perspective on the Adoption of Mobile Augmented Reality Based Applications

User Perspective on the Adoption of Mobile Augmented Reality Based Applications

Markus Salo (University of Jyväskylä, Finland), Thomas Olsson (Tampere University of Technology, Finland), Markus Makkonen (University of Jyväskylä, Finland) and Lauri Frank (University of Jyväskylä, Finland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-1939-5.ch009
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Mobile augmented reality (AR) based applications enable digital content to be connected with the user’s real world surroundings. To begin with, the current types of consumer-level applications are introduced. The main purpose of the chapter is to study the adoption and perceived strengths and weaknesses of mobile AR-based applications by analyzing quantitative and qualitative responses of 90 actual users. Diffusion of innovations (DOI) theory is adopted with structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate the intention to use such applications. Perceived strengths and weaknesses, mentioned by the users, are analyzed by qualitative coding. Results indicate that the constructs of diffusion of innovations theory are able to explain 67.7% of variance for the intention to use AR-based applications. Relative advantage, ease of use, and observability are significant factors determining use intentions. The strengths and weaknesses of applications are related to content, features, ease of use, technology and hardware, enjoyment, and concept.
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Augmented Reality Based Application Types

The term augmented reality was coined in 1992 in the context of developing AR system for assisting aircraft manufacturing (Caudell & Mizell, 1992). Milgram, Takemura, Utsumi and Kishino (1994) have presented a widely used illustration of mixed reality on the reality-virtuality continuum (Figure 1), which describes the position of AR in relation with real and virtual environments. Fairly consistent with Milgram’s continuum, in a well-known research article by Azuma (1997) AR is seen more as supplement to reality, rather than a replacement of reality. According to the definition of Azuma et al. (2001), AR system “combines real and virtual objects in a real environment”, “runs interactively, and in real time”, and “registers real and virtual objects with each other”. They also suggest that AR can be related to all senses, even though the majority of the studies on AR seem to focus on the sense of sight. More recently, user-based personalizing, filtering, creating and sharing of content have been mentioned as some of the main elements of present-day AR applications (Billinghurst & Kato, 2002; Nilsson, Johansson & Jönsson, 2009; Wither, DiVerdi & Höllerer, 2009). In this chapter, AR is seen as reflecting digital information with the real world context that the user perceives, thus enhancing the physical environment with digital information in an interactive way.

Figure 1.

Reality-virtuality continuum (Milgram et al. 1994)


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