Using Mayer's SOI Approach to Help Learners with ADHD Construct Knowledge

Using Mayer's SOI Approach to Help Learners with ADHD Construct Knowledge

Shani Salifu (Concord University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0892-2.ch012
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Abstract

The chapter examines Mayer's (1999) Selection, Organization, and Integration components of learning alongside requirements and processes needed to reach conclusions that learning has taken place. Data for the chapter was gathered through the review of appropriate literature, and reviewed to explore the established symptoms of learners diagnosed with ADHD. The review of literature looked at how the identified symptoms interfered with affected learners' classroom behavior, and subsequently with the ways in which they learn. The reviewed literature further explored various beliefs underlying Mayer's (1999) constructivist theory, and how the components outlined by Mayer (1999) can be adapted to facilitate learning among learners with ADHD. The chapter concludes by juxtaposing Mayer's (1999) design strategies with shortcomings that have been found to hinder learning in learners with ADHD. This juxtaposition results in strategies that could ensure that learning becomes possible among learners with ADHD.
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Introduction

This chapter examines the universal application of constructivist approaches to learning situations. The chapter is draws from a chapter by Richard E. Mayer (1999) in Volume II of the book Instructional-Design Theories and Models edited by Reigeluth (1999). Mayer’s (1999) discussion of instructional design for constructivist learning is the prime focus of this chapter. In this chapter, we will attempt to test Mayer’s (1999) basic principles for constructivist instructional design models for learning against requirements to effectively teach complex content to grade school learners diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). This is to help determine whether the plan for constructivist learning as explained in the Mayer’s (1999) chapter could be applied effectively to the teaching of complex content, or specifically to the teaching of mathematical concepts in grade school among special needs students.

Since a field research was not undertaken to collect data for this chapter, conclusions are guided solely by observations and findings by other writers in the field of learning disabilities and special education. Special attention is however given to writers whose works are based on data collected using learners diagnosed with ADHD. The chapter examines how these writers define ADHD and what their conclusions are, on the possible causes of this disorder. The chapter draws on the conclusions from the reviewed literature with a view to gaining some insights into how learners diagnosed with ADHD can learn complex concepts. To help formulate these insights, literature was reviewed to cover the definitions of learning disabilities; some known causes of ADHD, and how ADHD can be diagnosed in time to assist classroom instructors and instructional designers to design appropriate instructional approaches to facilitate the learning of learners affected by this disability.

Statement of Objectives

This chapter highlights aspects of the constructivist theory as a learning option. With the theory of Mayer (1999) being one of the numerous approaches to constructivist learning, this chapter explores the effectiveness of Mayer’s (1999) approach when applied to teaching and learning for learners diagnosed with ADHD. In doing this, the chapter examines the constructivist approach to learning as postulated by Mayer (1999) in the light of findings by writers who have conducted studies on learners diagnosed with ADHD. The chapter dwells on the provisions in Mayer’s (1999) theory to outline appropriate strategies for the theory’s application to learning situations involving learners diagnosed with ADHD. In the absence of findings showing compatibility between Mayer’s (1999) theory and the learning needs of this special group, recommendations are made on how the theory can be realigned or adjusted to create the desired environment within which teaching and learning can thrive. This chapter provides essential guidance to special needs teachers as it contains useful observations and recommendations for planning mathematics lessons for learners diagnosed with ADHD.

Key Terms in this Chapter

ADHD: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

SOI: Selecting, Organizing, and Integrating of information with a view to making meaning.

Neurological Deficiencies: The anomalous function in a learner that is the result of a deficient brain, spinal cord, muscles, or nerves.

Learning Disability: A condition in learners that results in difficulties in knowledge and skills acquisition when their output is juxtaposed with that of their colleague after having the same exposure.

Impulsive Behavior: When people act on their wishes with little to no planning or consideration of the consequences of their actions for themselves or others.

Learn: The outcome knowledge or skill acquisition imparted through formal or informal experiences, instruction, or study.

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