Using the Motivational Aspects of Productive Persistence Theory and Social Media Motivators to Improve the ELA Flipped Classroom Experience

Using the Motivational Aspects of Productive Persistence Theory and Social Media Motivators to Improve the ELA Flipped Classroom Experience

Rae Carrington Schipke (Central Connecticut State University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2242-3.ch002
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This chapter discusses the need to expand upon the pedagogical components of the flipped classroom model to include what is known about motivation as it relates to Productive Persistence Theory (PPT) and social media (SM) in order to increase student success in the English language arts. Motivational incentives suggested, in part, by the PPT literature, are identified and organized by its three non-cognitive aspects of grit, growth mindsets, and belonging. Motivators for SM use are identified in the literature and categorized as seeking, expressing, and engaging. Implications drawn are that student learning is personal, developmental, and social, all operating simultaneously. Also, that this multidimensionality is involved in motivating each individual student and that SM inherently supports such motivation. A conceptual framework is presented that demonstrates how both PPT and SM allow teachers to meet students where they are in their learning and in their personal and social growth and development.
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To date, the flipped classroom model has been embraced by a limited number of teachers and administrators, and its range of uses as a model has been from in its entirety (a full flip) to limited (a partial flip) and even to selectively (a strategically incorporated flip). Its suitability as a choice and particular level of use as a model has often been dependent on a given teacher’s circumstances with respect to planning time and support among other factors. For time-strapped English language arts (ELA) teachers with expanding class sizes, it understandably holds promise for improving both teaching and learning in ELA.

Although this promise does exist, there are notable strengths but also weaknesses of the flipped model related to delivery, as well as positives for both students and teachers inherent in the model as instruction is moved online. Underlying the online delivery of the model are strengths: course materials and content that is accessible, efficient, individualized, self-paced, interactive, and reviewable for students. However, weaknesses include: students spending more time out of class on the computer to prepare and the concern of student access to available technology. For teachers, use of the model involves rethinking their role as teacher; more preparation time; and a required learning and use curve for mastering content creation tools, curator skills, and video production skills.

The flipped model, therefore, is still basically a malleable vessel into which strengths and weaknesses of delivery and pros and cons related to student and teacher use are still being formed, created, and tried. As such, there exists opportunity for expanding, shaping, and improving the model. This chapter discusses remodeling the ELA flipped classroom to improve student success by focusing on how to evolve the current model to better serve student learning. It addresses the limitations in the flipped classroom model and offers a more inclusive one that builds upon its strengths by expanding upon the pedagogical aspects of the model to include student non-cognitives and social media. By integrating important motivational aspects of Productive Persistence Theory (Silva & White, 2013), together with social media motivators, the flipped classroom model can be improved and subsequently increase student success in the flipped ELA classroom.

Although limited research on the flipped classroom model has been conducted, researchers and proponents of the model, including Bergmann & Sams (2008; 2012), Zappe (2009), and Sams & Bergmann (2013), among others, agree that students are more active learners and have a more meaningful understanding of course material and its application. They also suggest that students have more responsibility for their own learning. There is a focus on self-directed responsibility in the online aspects of the flipped classroom and even on its role in the active learning aspects in the brick and mortar components of the model. Given the heavy reliance on student responsibility in the flipped classroom model, this might indicate that motivation could be a key factor in the success or failure of students being taught using the model and in the overall success of the model itself. The focus on active learning and responsibility in the flipped classroom raises the question of the importance of including student motivation in the flipped classroom model, its role in the model, and how its integration can best be accomplished.

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