Using the SAMR and UDL Models to Differentiate Online Instruction: The Case of Desmos

Using the SAMR and UDL Models to Differentiate Online Instruction: The Case of Desmos

Joanne Caniglia (Kent State University, USA) and Michelle Meadows (Tiffin University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1476-4.ch009
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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss two frameworks that are useful for integrating and differentiating technology within online learning environments for students with disabilities: Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and the Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition Model (SAMR). Following a review of the literature of each framework, the interactive software program, Desmos®, will be used to demonstrate how to integrate these two models. Finally, the authors make recommendations that will support all students to benefit from an online environment and engage in inclusive learning experiences.
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Udl Framework

In December of 2015, Congress passed the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) replacing The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 to support better teaching and learning with high expectations for all students (CAST, 2016). ESSA endorses the Universal Design for Learning, which is defined by Rogers-Shaw, Carr-Chellman, and Choi (2018), as “a framework for the teaching-learning transaction that conceptualizes knowledge through learner-centered foci emphasizing accessibility, collaboration, and community” (p.20). This framework is credited to the work of Rose and Meyer (2002) from the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) focusing their research on learning, digital media, and brain development. The premise of UDL is to design curriculum that is beneficial for all learners, not just those with disabilities (Rogers-Shaw et al., 2018). With the incorporation of UDL, teachers are able to include strategies for students with learning disabilities, gifted learners, and English Language Learners (ODE, 2013). The three major components of UDL include: (1) Multiple means of Representation, (2) Multiple Means of Action and Expression, and (3) Multiple Means of Engagement (Rose & Meyer, 2002), which represent the what, how, and why of learning. As illustrated in Figure 1, the what of learning relates to representing the content in different ways to learners, while the how of learning is related to the means of action and expression for differentiating the ways students express what they know. Lastly, the why of learning relates to engagement in student interest and motivation to learn (Rogers-Shaw, et al., 2018). UDL changes how students access, engage, and respond to information through providing alternative ways to demonstrate skills acquired. In this perspective, UDL it is both a philosophy and an intervention (Rose & Meyer, 2002).

Figure 1.



Each of the three principles illustrated within Figure 1 are described in further detail within the following section.

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