Utilization of Agro Waste: An Approach for the Administration of Healthy Environment and Public Domain

Utilization of Agro Waste: An Approach for the Administration of Healthy Environment and Public Domain

Savita Budhwar (Central University of Haryana, India) and Manali Chakraborty (Central University of Haryana, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1966-0.ch006

Abstract

Agro-wastes are one of the major sources for nutritional and therapeutic purposes along with other beneficial properties according to some ongoing studies. Yet they are not being utilized properly; instead, these wastes are being discarded in open air, causing pollution. Conservation of such natural resources is a healthy approach, and it's economic and eco-friendly. too. Novel formulated food products from these agro-wastes can be utilized as an unconventional source of nutrients and a therapeutic weapon for diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, etc. along with normal human consumption. Utilization of such agro-wastes as food products will also be useful to combat malnourished state leading to rural development and maintenance of food security in cheap prices for a healthy seeks. It also shows a possible role as antibiotics, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, adsorbents, enzyme extracting sources, insulators, and food additives along with its contribution in solid state fermentation, beneficial in dairy industries.
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Introduction

Recognition of the by products resulting from the industrial or societal process is very much crucial for the waste management instead of disposing them into air or water, burying in land or burn them. They may be a very good source of nutrients. Sole composition of these agro wastes may not be the appropriate balance of nutrients for the other utilizations such as, value added food production; combined with one another can be low cost sources of health benefits. The most economical method to dispose rice husk is considered to burn it to ashes. This husk ash from the milling industry as well as the field is causing environmental pollution leading to major difficulty. Major economic way to recycle these wastes is the formation of value added products (Anuj kumar et al. 2015). This husk ash contains silica predominantly along with other elements such as potassium, magnesium, calcium. Dumped wastes in open environment causes water as well as land pollution becoming one of the causes of global climatic changes in twenty first century (Shi et al. 2010). Gathering attention to dispose in innovative ways and utilizing these agro wastes is really a matter of concern (Zhang et al 2015).

Reducing agro losses during industrial processing and to make use of by-products appropriately for human feed is now a major global alarm. Before utilizing such wasted parts their nutrient as well as anti-nutrient breakdown is very much needed to understand to check the consumable properties along with toxicities, if any.

Almost 70% yield of rice as the major one is recorded and rests are unconsumed part, utilized as animal feed. These wastes consist of rice husk, rice bran and rice germ. During polish of rice 1-17% broken rice is also generated which is consist of broken kernels. Almost 2.95 million tons de-oiled rice bran production has been recorded just for animal fed. Mung bean bran, also called chunni in India, consist of broken parts of bean, is rich in protein. 50% of the buffaloes feed is consist of bran of mung maintaining proper nutrition in cattle fed (Krishna et al. 2002).Chickpea by-products (bran, straw and husk) are highly nutritive and a large amount of it is consumed by animals. Almost 10-11% bran is produced during processing (Kanatt et al. 2011).

Global population and its subsequent increment is one of the most critical challenges for the future. Additional food demand, malnourished condition is going to create a terrible concern in the coming timeline of human kind until and unless maintenance of post-harvest losses and food security is considered from now only. It is expected that population mark will rise up to 9.1 billion people by the year 2050 and almost 70% extra food requirement will be needed to avoid hunger issues (Godfray et al. 2010, Hodges et al. 2011, Parfitt et al. 2010). Though developing countries already started to improve their agricultural condition and productions, awareness regarding post-harvest loss (PHL) is still not sufficient. Less than 5% research funding has been issued in this context in previous few years (Kitinoja et al. 2011). Balance of this food demand along with the waste management to control environmental pollution is undoubtedly a critical research priority. This environment friendly approach not only might be a rich source of nutrients as food substances but also can be transformed into marketable valuable products emerging low cost budget economical independency for the below poverty lined population.

By product of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concern, but they are also promising source of compounds which may be used because of their favorable technological and nutritional properties. On account of almost stagnant pulse production, increased population and environmental health issues related to burning of these waste, it has become necessary to improve the processes to utilize the milled, broken, husk part and prepare supplementing and mixed by product foods to meet the current dietary demands of human beings.

Approximately 20-30% of by products have not been utilized. Even though utilized but their full potential as a source of nutrient has not been exploited. Therefore they are underutilized and degraded in environment.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Value Addition: Extra value added over the original value of something. It can apply to products, services, companies, management, as well as other areas of business. In other words, value-added is the enhancement made by a company/individual to a product or service before channelizing it before consumer.

Fermentation: A metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic substrates through the action of enzymes. In bio- chemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen.

Industrial Waste: Waste that are produced due to industrial activity, including any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, industries, mills, and mining operations.

Antioxidants: Compounds that inhibit oxidation which is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals (ROS), leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants viz., thiols or ascorbic acid cease these chain reactions.

Nutraceuticals: Any product derived from food sources with extra health beneficial properties in addition to the basic nutritional value found in foods.

Biodegradation: The conversion of a substance into other compounds through biochemical reactions and/or the actions of microorganisms such as bacteria is known as biodegradation. Alternatively, it can be defined as a process by which microbial organisms transform or alter (through metabolic or enzymatic action) the structure of chemicals.

Agricultural Waste: Waste that are produced from various agricultural operations. It mainly includes manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses, harvest waste, fertilizer run-off from fields, pesticides which enter into water, air or soils; and salt and silt drained from fields.

Food Security: Food security, as defined by the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security, means that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life.

Functional Food: A food with an additional function due to accumulation of new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.

Phyto Chemicals: Chemical compounds that mainly come from plant sources, generally with the purpose of self-survival from competitors, predators, or pathogens are phytochemicals. These chemicals are found be health beneficial. Some phyto chemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine.

Nutrition Security: The consumption of an ample range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients.

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