VANET Authentication Using Trust Distribution in a Clustered Environment

VANET Authentication Using Trust Distribution in a Clustered Environment

S. Sivagurunathan (Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed University, India) and P. Subathra (Thiagarajar College of Engineering, India)
Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61350-477-2.ch007
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Security is a prime concern in providing communication between vehicles in a Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET), where they share information among themselves and nearby fixed equipments. Unlike wired networks, the unique characteristics of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) pose a number of non-trivial challenges to security design. This chapter presents a threshold security mechanism with a mobility based clustering for Inter Vehicle Communication (IVC). Nodes that have similar moving pattern are grouped into a cluster. Unlike other clustering algorithms, it takes the moving pattern of the vehicles into consideration along with the driver’s intention. The stability of clusters is estimated based on relative mobility of cluster members. A threshold cryptographic scheme is employed on top of the clusters to protect routing information and data traffic. To ensure distributed trust in the clustered environment, the private key (k) is divided into n pieces in such a way that k is easily reconstruct able from any p number of pieces. Even complete knowledge of (p-1) pieces reveals absolutely no information about k.
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The ultimate goal of designing the VANET is to provide safety and efficiency in transportation systems. They comprise network nodes, that is, vehicles and Road side Infrastructure Units RSU), equipped with on-board sensory, processing, and wireless communication modules. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication can enable a range of applications. Among these, primarily safety will be enabled, as numerous research and development initiatives indicate, by vehicles frequently beaconing their position, along with warnings on their condition or environment. Nonetheless, VANETs can be vulnerable to attacks and jeopardize user’s privacy. For example, an attacker could inject beacons with false information, or collect vehicle’s messages, track their locations, and infer sensitive user data. To thwart such attacks, security and privacy enhancing mechanisms are necessary or, in fact, a prerequisite for deployment.

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