Video as a Means to an End: Problems and Techniques Associated with Using Video in Teacher Training

Video as a Means to an End: Problems and Techniques Associated with Using Video in Teacher Training

Beverly B. Ray (Idaho State University, USA) and Angiline Powell (University of Memphis, USA)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0711-6.ch014
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Abstract

Having teachers who can demonstrate and document teaching effectiveness, ethical behavior, professional obligations, and willingness to embrace continuous learning is important to for the well-being of the field. Video serves as a viable means of addressing these concerns. In particular, use of video in teacher training promotes a disposition for reflection on and documentation of emerging practice. It also serves to document transfer of classroom based knowledge into teaching even as it provides a tool for the documentation of growth across time. The chapter provides an outline of best practices in the use of video in teacher training, focusing on problems and techniques of video production that support quality recording and production of videos in class and in the field. Various categories of video appropriate for use in Teacher Training programs are addressed and examples of use are provided. Directions for getting started are provided along with a process for implementation using both hard and soft scaffolding.
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Introduction

Teacher trainers assume an obligation to the teachers we prepare to assist them to develop high level practices (Grossman, Hammerness, & McDonald, 2009), including such skills as noticing learning and how it occurs and systematically reflecting on and learning from the process of teaching and learning. However, pre-service and other novice teachers can experience difficulties acquiring these high level skills and translating them into effective practice (Grossman, Hammerness, & McDonald, 2009; Watson, Blakeley, & Abbot, 1998). This disconnect, compounded by other pivotal challenges faced by pre-service and other novice teachers, can be seen in research documenting high attrition rates, in some countries, including the United States, during the teacher induction years (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Moore Johnson, & The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, 2004; Shen, 2003). Yet this disconnect between course work and the development of high level practices, many of which are hard to “integrate” without actually experiencing and reflecting on them beforehand, can be addressed via the use of video as tool for noticing and reflecting on practice (Santagata & Guarino, 2011). The ability to stop, rewind, and review multiple times when using video empowers pre-service and other novice teachers to carefully study, reflect on, and learn from video recorded classroom interactions (Brophy, 2004). Furthermore, the review of the literature concerning video use aligned with reform efforts in teacher education falls into three broad categories of use:

  • 1.

    Supporting efforts to transform existing beliefs and ideas,

  • 2.

    Supporting efforts to acquire pedagogical content knowledge, and

  • 3.

    Supporting efforts to develop deep pedagogical understanding.

Self-reflection on the meaningfulness of the teaching experience coupled with opportunities to model desire practices are supported by the literature as is using video to assist in the transformation of beliefs about teaching. In order to support this process, pre-service and other novice teachers need exemplars that can serve as models of effective practice (Wang &Hartley, 2003). Little work is found in the literature, however, on how-to capture quality video.

Having teachers capable of demonstrating and documenting teaching effectiveness, ethical behavior, professional obligations, and a willingness to embrace continuous learning is important for the well-being of the field. Video serves as a viable means of documenting this effort. In particular, use of video in teacher training programs or as a part of professional development programs promotes a disposition for reflection on and documentation of the novice’s emerging practice. It also serves to document transfer of classroom based knowledge into teaching even as it provides a tool for documenting and reflecting on growth across time. However, before any of this can occur, pre-service and other novice teachers, along with their instructors or instructional coaches, need the process of video production scaffolded for them. Scaffolding the experience is critical to assuring successful use and integration of video into teacher training or professional development programs. Consequently, this chapter outlines best practices in the use of video, focusing on getting started with video and conquering common problems and mastering key techniques of video production that result in quality recordings in class and in the field. Those interested in using video to support teaching effectiveness, including pre-service and other novice teachers, instructional coaches, and other teacher trainers, will find outlined here specific directions for getting started.

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Two Broad Types Of Video With Applications For Teacher Training

In general, there are two broad types of video that have applications within teacher training and professional development programs—instructor (expert) produced and novice (e.g., pre-service or other novice teacher) produced videos.

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