Video Modeling for Learners with Developmental Disabilities

Video Modeling for Learners with Developmental Disabilities

Peggy J. S. Whitby (University of Arkansas, USA), Christine R. Ogilvie (FSU CARD, USA) and Krista Vince Garland (SUNY Buffalo State, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8395-2.ch011
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Abstract

Video modeling is an evidence-based practice for learners with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the use of video modeling interventions for learners with other developmental disabilities has received less applied attention in home, community, and classroom settings. This is unfortunate since the research literature supports the use of video modeling interventions for all learners with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the research literature and make suggestions for implementing video modeling with learners who have developmental disabilities other than autism.
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Introduction

Video modeling involves the use of videos to teach or modify behaviors. Short videos can be used to provide instruction in social skills, functional or daily living skills, and many other areas. Creating video models involves identifying a target behavior, developing a task analysis of the target, assessing content validity of the target behavior by observing typical peers implementing the task, and adjusting task analysis based upon the findings. Next, a type of video modeling intervention is selected based upon the needs of the learner, and differentiating the intervention begins.

The use of video modeling as an effective intervention for learners with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has gained much attention recently as the National Autism Center (2014) has identified it as a research-based practice. The majority of research focuses on video self-modeling and video modeling with others as models for learners with ASD. While these two types of video modeling are effective interventions for learners with ASD, there are other types of video modeling that have garnered less attention and may be more appropriate for learners with developmental disabilities that include comorbid intellectual disabilities. Since roughly 33% of those diagnosed with an ASD also have a comorbid intellectual disability (Centers for Disease Control, 2014), inclusion of other types of video modeling for both learners with ASD and related developmental disabilities is quite important. Models such as video modeling and video self-modeling, in particular, have led to a base of evidence-based practices for learners with ASD; however, point-of-view modeling for learners with other developmental disabilities has received less attention despite still being appropriate interventions. This is unfortunate, since video modeling for learners with differing abilities is an appropriate intervention that is well supported by the research literature (Bellini, Peters, Benner, & Hopf, 2007; Gresham, 2002; Hart & Whalon, 2012; Mechling & Collins, 2012). One purpose of this chapter is to present the different types of video modeling interventions, accompanied by a review of relevant literature. The second purpose of this chapter is to provide strategies to determine which type of video modeling procedure is appropriate for teaching skills to children with developmental disabilities while providing guidelines in using point-of-view video modeling for learners with developmental disabilities.

Case Study-Karen: Throughout the chapter, you will see vignettes about Karen, a young woman with Down syndrome. The purpose of the vignette is to provide you with a real-life example of when and how to use video modeling for learners with developmental disabilities.

Karen is a 15-year-old with Down Syndrome. She attends public school and participates in resource room classes for reading and math. She is an active, friendly young woman who enjoys spending time with her friends and participates on the local swim team. Karen will be turning 16 in a few months and it is her wish, as well as her parents’ and teachers’, to get a job during summer break. Her IEP team will be meeting soon to determine what type of interventions would be appropriate for teaching Karen specific job-related tasks.

What are Developmental Disabilities?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014), the term “developmental disability” refers to a group of conditions that reflect impairments in physical, language, behavioral and learning abilities that begin during the developmental period, generally last throughout the individual’s lifetime, and may impact day-to-day functioning. Among the conditions housed under the CDC’s definition are Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cerebral Palsy, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Intellectual Disabilities, and others. In 2008, the CDC reported that the prevalence of any developmental disability from 1997-2008 was 13.87% with developmental delays having a specific prevalence of 3.65%. For the purpose of this chapter, the term “developmental disability” will refer to learners with limitations in their ability to learn at an expected level as well as those who are struggling with day-to-day independent functioning.

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